The prevalence rate of COVID-19 is rapidly rising every day throughout the globe. It can help to forecast the impact of COVID-19 in a, This article does not contain any studies, Significant applications of big data in COVID-19 pandemic, https ://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmrp.2020.03.011, https ://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsb.2020.02.008. This paper is intended to provide experts (medical or otherwise) and technicians with new insights into the ways deep learning techniques are used in this regard and how they potentially further works in combatting the outbreak of COVID-19. This paper aims to overview the recently developed systems based on deep learning techniques using different medical imaging modalities like Computer Tomography (CT) and X-ray. The WHO declares that more precise measures to track, detect and isolate infected people are among the most effective means to quickly contain the, SARS-CoV2 is a novel coronavirus, responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic declared by the World Health Organization. In the same context, in numerous other countries, since coronavirus takes several days before the emergence of symptoms, it has also been reported that the known number of infections is not representative of the real number of infected people (the actual number is expected to be much higher). Marketers have targeted ads since well before the internet—they just did it with minimal data, guessing at what consumers mightlike based on their TV and radio consumption, their responses to mail-in surveys and insights from unfocused one-on-one "depth" interviews. the most critically ill patients with COVID-19: the potential role, X. This article is featured on the COVID-19 research community page, All content in this area was uploaded by Mohd Javaid on May 17, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1007/s43465-020-00129-z, Signicant Applications ofBig Data inCOVID‑19 P, Received: 3 April 2020 / Accepted: 27 April 2020, 65,000 have died of this disease, until toda, ate burst of cases and their health data have created a vital, these cases, using different data storage technologies. With, detailed data capturing capability, big data can be used gain, fully to minimise the risk of spreading this virus [, Big data technology can store a massive amount of inf, mation about these people infected with this COVID-19, virus. This virus creates significant knock-on effects on the daily life of citizens as well as about the global economy. Travel history: Used to store the travel history of the people to analyze the risk, and also helps to identify people who may be in contact with the infected patient of this virus. It is designed for researchers and professionals interested in big data or related … %PDF-1.5 stream Presumed asymptomatic carrier transmission of COVID-. Structure and screening results of important targets such as 3-chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro), Spike, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), and papain like protease (PLpro) were discussed in detail. Some of the recent work has been summarised and we present our viewpoint at the conclusion as to why we must consider artificial intelligence as a disrupting positive influence on orthopaedic surgery. The challenges of using big data for adaptation applications … applications of big data in COVID-19 pandemic. /Length 3338 The digitization of such data is called Big Data… It is heard everywhere, especially in the healthcare industry. Edited by: Sebastian Ventura Soto, José M. Luna and Alberto Cano. A taxonomy is drawn to categorize the recent works for proper insight. in the US at both national and state level is presented. Big data can, also provide possible sources and opportunities for the peo. Data-intensive applications, challenges, techniques and technologies: A survey on Big Data C.L. Based on trajectory big data and the theory of mean-field, we establish an aggregated risk mean=field that contains information of all risk-spreading particles by proposing a spatio-temporal model named HiRES risk map. A Review on Deep Learning Techniques for the Diagnosis of Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19), Tracking COVID-19 by Tracking Infectious Trajectories, When will be the resumption of work in Wuhan and its surrounding areas during COVID-19 epidemic? It could include web server logs, Internet click … %���� New product development and reverse engineering through these hardware and software. Indeed, most of the existing studies deal with contact-tracking systems but only from an abstract, statistical or taxonomical perspective [27]-, ... 2. These data can be used to track the virus on a global basis, continuously and to create innovation in the medical field, particular area and the whole population. surveillance, real-time epidemic outbreaks monitoring, trend now-casting/forecasting, regular situation briefing and updating from governmental institutions and organisms, and health facility utilization information. So here's an alternative (yet businesslike) definition: Big data is about "building new analytic applications based on new types of data… In: 2017 5th, IEEE international conference on models and technologies for. As the internet and big data have evolved, so has marketing. When will be the resumption of work in Wuhan and, its surrounding areas during COVID-19 epidemic? Possible targets of these compounds and potential drugs acting on a certain target were predicted. The main aim this chapter is to present different predictive analytics techniques available for trend analysis, different models and algorithms and their comparison. Many applications have already attempted to include big data in healthcare. intelligent transportation systems (MT-ITS), 26 Jun 2017 (pp. << +�9+�d��H$a�mr��{���RE^&�8���{T�L(� Big data applications are especially sensitive to the effectiveness of garbage collection (i.e., GC), because they usually process a large volume of data objects that lead to heavy GC overhead. Big data also present an opportunity for the private sector because of an increasing demand for information on adaptation needs, options, and services. These databases are valuable resources for businesses to improve their current methods or come up with new approaches based on those precious data that we generate. The last few decades have seen rapid adoption of new technologies into orthopaedic practice, power tools, new implants, CAD–CAM design, 3-D printing, additive manufactur- ing just to name a few. The applications of big data to smart cities can be classified into two types, offline big data applications and real-time big data applications. Traditionally, the huge amount of data generated by the healthcare industry was stored as hard copy. The goal is to help the authorities to disinfect high-contamination sites and confine persons even if they have no apparent symptoms. With the increase in volume, variation, and veracity of data, the common analysis techniques are out of the picture. SARS-CoV-2 has caused tens of thousands of infections and more than one thousand deaths. There is one particular common factor in all of these devices. Second, we discussed platforms, opens source … The detection rates as de ned by successful classification are above 90% as long as the population infection rate is under 20%, which indicates great application potential in epidemic risk prevention and control practice. COVID-19 (Coronavirus) has affected day to day life and is slowing down the global economy. Finally, the combination of inhibitors of HDAC and bromodomain and extra-terminal motif (BET), another BRCA1 synthetic lethality target that also works through oxidative stress-mediated DNA damage, showed a strong anticancer effect in BRCA1−/− breast cancer cells. important to analyze the trend of these spread and infected cases. This is where Big Data jumps in. In this study, we found that inhibition of the class I histone deacetylases (HDAC) exhibited synthetic lethality with BRCA1 deficiency in breast cancer cells. BUILDs,ollection of k objects are selected for an initial seS. Real-time big data applications are different because … This pandemic has affected thousands of peoples, who are either sick or are being killed due to the spread of this disease. Knox jerry-built insomuch as effeminate Rubin exploring … Considering the recent epidemic in China, modeling of COVID-19 epidemic for cumulative number of infected cases using data available in early phase was big challenge. In public services, Big Data has an extensive range of applications, including energy exploration, financial market analysis, fraud detection, health-related research, and environmental … 7 Big Data Examples: Applications of Big Data in Real Life Big Data has totally changed and revolutionized the way businesses and organizations work. 77 0 obj In the area through these machines and Rhino software. Computational Intelligence and Big Data Analytics : Applications in BioinformaticsComputational Intelligence and Big Data Analytics : Applications in Bioinformatics download PDF, EPUB, MOBI, CHM, … We then propose an objective personal epidemic risk scoring model named HiRES-p based on HiRES risk maps, and use it to develop statistical inference based method and machine learning based method for detecting suspected epidemic-infected individuals. (2019). [ Is big data commoditization a real threat? 2019, 3, 32 3 of 30 review provides a broader view by focusing on the recent trends in big data and business analytics development. In this blog, we will go deep into the major Big Data applications … And holding a place for ourselves is the main … The novel coronavirus has now infected tens of thousands of people in China and has spread rapidly around the globe.¹ The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the disease, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a Public Health Emergency of International Concern and released interim guidelines on patient management.² Early reports that emerged from Wuhan, the epicenter of the outbreak, demonstrated that the clinical manifestations of infection were fever, cough, and dyspnea, with radiological evidence of viral pneumonia.³,4 Approximately 15% to 30% of these patients developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Indeed, a recently conducted study [1] has reported that 79% of the confirmed infections in China were caused by undocumented patients who had no symptoms. Big data analytics will act as a medium for tracking, controlling, research and prevention of C, pandemic. Big data is a term for massive data sets having large amounts of data, more varied and complex structure with the difficulties of analysing, storing and … Results show that the HiRES risk map has strong ability in capturing global trend and local variability of the epidemic risk, thus can be applied to monitor epidemic risk at country, province, city and community levels, as well as at specific high-risk locations such as at hospital and station. The results indicate that Google Trends correlate with COVID-19 data, while the estimated models exhibit strong predictability of COVID-19. The recent outbreak of the novel coronavirus COVID-19 has rapidly formed a global pandemic, causing hundreds of thousands of infections and huge economic loss. The new disruption in orthopaedics in the current time and era is undoubtedly the advent of artificial intelligence and robotics. According to a survey by "Analytics Advantage" overseen by academic and analytics specialist Tom Davenport, 96 percent of respondents felt data analytics would be more critical to their businesses over the next three years. The primary goal of Big Data applications is to help companies make more informative business decisions by analyzing large volumes of data. Majumdar et al. /Filter /FlateDecode All rights reserved. Finally, we conclude by addressing the challenges associated with the use of deep learning methods for COVID-19 detection and probable future trends in this research area. aIoT: Internet of Things. Big data is useless without analysis, and data scientists are those professionals who collect and analyze data with the help of analytics and reporting tools, turning it into actionable insights. Lacking … Customer relationship management and big data enabled: personalisation & customisation of services. It will diversify manufacturing, enhance vac, ing and offering an edge over the other process like cor, responding homology models predicted by fold and func, tion assignment system server for each tar, downloaded from Protein Data Bank, for predicting the, COVID-19 cure and identifying the symptoms associated, ses with the factors leading to better containment of the, infected persons. The WHO interim guidelines made general recommendations for treatment of ARDS in this setting, including that consideration be given to referring patients with refractory hypoxemia to expert centers capable of providing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). >> Read Hadoop According To Hortonworks: An Insider's View . Because of time consuming process of new drug development, drug repositioning may be the only solution to the epidemic of sudden infectious diseases. Nowadays, all these devices are either smart or researchers are paving the way to make them smart. This application focuses on … Although governments all over the world have taken severe measurements to slow down the virus spreading (e.g., travel restrictions, suspending all sportive, social, and economic activities, quarantines, social distancing, etc. To contribute to remedying this global pandemic, in this paper, we propose an IoTa investigation system that was specifically designed to spot both undocumented patients and infectious places. With the assistance of this digital data storing technology, doctors and scientists can also develop a con. Countries are banning gatherings of people to the spread and break the exponential curve. Orthopaedics as a surgical discipline requires a combination of good clinical acumen, good surgical skill, a reasonable physical strength and most of all, good understanding of technology. • Abitrarily choose k objects as the initial medoids. Philip Chen , Chun-Yang Zhang Department of Computer and Information Science, Faculty of Science and … These technologies provide opportunities for better service, In some places, the big data provides information to, identify the suspected cases of this virus. It can, therefore, increase the performance by a better under, standing of the treatment procedures from the appropriate, captured data. Big data provides an infrastructure for … We conduct numerical experiments by applying the proposed methods to study the early outbreak of COVID-19 in China. �\,.�UrvW�h��07������3�������v�u��M���K,H��}���$أ4�C �| C8�N����.#È$�/KB�Si ?�@R�*��W LA�8�0� TDߛ���4����m�� ]|��n���rx\�Y. To rank as a good data … with human participants or animals, performed by any of the authors. Applications of Big Data in Healthcare Download and Read online Applications of Big Data in Healthcare, ebooks in PDF, epub, Tuebl Mobi, Kindle Book.Get Free Applications Of Big Data In Healthcare … Applications of big data to smart cities Eiman Al Nuaimi1, Hind Al Neyadi1, Nader Mohamed2* and Jameela Al-Jaroodi3 Abstract Many governments are considering adopting the smart city concept in … As these technologies take root and innovative applications continue to be incorporated into the main-stream orthopedics, as we know it today, it is imperative to look at and understand the basics of artificial intelligence and what work is being done in the field today. Examples of these amazingly fast and powerful devices could be smartphones and personal computers, which are now an essential part of routine lives. – (R)ssign each object to the … Finally, this chapter concludes with the prediction of COVID-19 using Prophet algorithm indicating more faster spread in short term. Big Data is a powerful tool that makes things ease in various fields as said above. By providing the captured data, this technology helps in identification of the infected, cases and undertake further analysis of the level of risks, Helps to identify people who may be in contact with the infected patient of this virus, Helps to identify the suspicious cases and other misinformation with the appropriate, Helps to analyse and identify persons who can be infected b, Potential to handle appropriate information regarding the disease, Track and monitor the movement of people and entir, With these vast amount of data, health specialist can quickly identify the chances of, Provides previous data of virus inhabited or spread and, thus, helps in gaining a giv-, (2020). Big data applications are applied in various fields like banking, agriculture, chemistry, data mining, cloud … This data has the capability to support a wide range of healthcare and medical functions. business applications, big data (according to IBM) consists of the following three major attributes: • Variety—extends beyond structured data and includes semi-structure or unstructured data … The main question is “How do these massive databases affect our life for the better?” • Until no chang,. It also highlights the data partitioning techniques and various performance measures developed by researchers in this field. We systematically analyzed all the proteins encoded by SARS-CoV-2 genes, compared them with proteins from other coronaviruses, predicted their structures, and built 19 structures that could be done by homology modeling. Nowadays, the coronavirus pandemic has and is still causing large numbers of deaths and infected people. Big Data is a sensitive issue for European Union (EU) institutions: the availability of health-related Big Data can have a positive impact on medical and healthcare functions. PDF | On May 7, 2020, Abid Haleem and others published Significant Applications of Big Data in COVID-19 Pandemic | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate It, associations and differences. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. Consequently, rapid isolation of suspicious cases and more efficient control over any pandemic propagation can be achieved. Big Data’s recommendation engine is one of the most amazing applications the Big Data world has ever witnessed. ?�b�J)e�|�pk������yU"�D�U�/2�y��%kF^�\� U�vA�����Е����Yw���tR��cu�6�a���"N��y� �_4ڷw��!�N��*uI�^?M���wn^����������z��0�dba��7��]�`!����������~k���tl���v�tJ� It helps to pro, valuable information. Big data is the buzzword today. They all are generating data, every second, everything we do with our smart devices delivers and generates a digital trace. make informed decision to fight with the COVID-19 virus. (2020). These, data are used to undertake research and development about, the virus, pandemic and measures to fight this virus and its, digitally store a large amount of data of these patients. … Trying to use the equipment under different conditions and for different compone, Emerging infectious diseases are crucial threats to human health and global stability. ].Several modalities of digital data including patient, ]. Novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak, has raised a calamitous situation all over the world and has become one of the most acute and severe ailments in the past hundred years. This article takes the form of a loosely structured narrative review and will introduce the reader to key concepts in the field of artificial intelligence as well as some of the directions in application of the same in orthopaedics. In this paper, the first approach of exploring the role of Google query data in the predictability of COVID-19, Globally, there is massive uptake and explosion of data and challenge is to address issues like scale, pace, velocity, variety, volume and complexity of this big data. These predictions will be useful to government and healthcare communities to initiate appropriate measures to control this outbreak in time. Big data is a blessing for conducting the clini, cal trials, to speed up the treatment process by analysing the, https://scholar.google.co.in/citations?user=rfyiwvsAAAAJ&hl=en, https://scholar.google.co.in/citations?user=40471, https://scholar.google.co.in/citations?user, SaritaVihar, Mathura Road, NewDelhi110076, India. j��z�^��qI > �����{����+�P����i �D&q�u0}e��w�$��=�%����K�T�a����?��8�2e M;����j�}�>��}~�,2K�yB�i+s� As a complement to, these requirements, new technologies (e.g., AI) ha, ate innovations in the field of Orthopaedics and has also, provided positive impact in the treatment and surg, Significant changes and innovations are possible with the. nts. Big Data on Real-World Applications. We are living in a world of tremendous competition. In addition, a database of 78 commonly used anti-viral drugs including those currently on the market and undergoing clinical trials for SARS-CoV-2 was constructed. Being COVID-19 pandemic during very short time span, it is very, Join ResearchGate to discover and stay up-to-date with the latest research from leading experts in, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. Today it's possible to collect or buy massive troves of data that indicates what large numbers of consumers search for, click on and "like." There are many applications of big data such as manufacturing, bioinformatics, health care, social network, business, science and technology and smart cities. Comput. ... Computer vision [32] has also contributed for the reduction of the severity of this pandemic. The amount of data available to companies is growing rapidly. Big data provides a massive amount of inf, scientists, health workers, epidemiologists and help them to. The present review is aimed at overviewing the potential applications of AI and Big Data in the global effort to manage the pandemic. help of new technologies like big data, AI and 3D printing. The data obtained can further be trained over again, is used to store the data of all types of cases (infected, reco, allocate the resources for better protection of public health, patient physiology and current symptoms can be digitised, and used for generating actionable insights at both commu. machines Article Applications of Big Data analytics and Related Technologies in Maintenance—Literature-Based Research Jens Baum 1, Christoph Laroque 1,* , Benjamin Oeser 1, … Transcriptome profiling and validation study showed that HDAC inhibition enhanced the expression of thioredoxin interaction protein (TXNIP), causing reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated DNA damage. Introduction of Big Data • In the Modern Digital Life, huge amounts of data … It helps in understanding the nature of this virus in, detail. — The field of Big Data plays a vital role in various fields. By performing target-based virtual ligand screening, a total of 21 targets (including two human targets) were screened against compound libraries including ZINC drug database and our own database of natural products. xڭZI��6��W�X�qѢDm�%v��d�8��KbW)�R�ҕ�_? Read … Breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) is a tumor suppressor gene, which is frequently mutated in breast and ovarian cancers. Although, we know that using data solely can’t lead us to discover any insight, but data is the fuel in this process. (2020). A data-driven, analytics architecture for real-time traffic control. Big Data Cogn. HiRES-p score is an effective measurement of personal epidemic risk. The proposed system also allows determining all persons who had close contact with infected or suspected patients. It has dynamic fine spatial resolution and high computation efficiency enabling fast update. After being an experienced practitioner in this specific field and having the knowledge acquired during my studies in the University of Tor Vergata in Business Administrations, I’m confident to explain how business entities – and even non-profit organizations – keep using data and algorithms to increase their revenue, better manage their costs, and to contribute in the benefit of the whole society. Download Applications Of Big Data In Healthcare Book For Free in PDF, EPUB. Even though many countries have launched their proper information systems to trace and slowdown the coronavirus [23]- [26], to the best of our knowledge, no research works have been dedicated to deeply study such systems from the theoretical and technical points of view. This, being a new viral disease affecting humans for the first time, vaccines are not yet available. artificial intelligence and machine learning: a new disrup. It can also help in revealing, the insights into the spread and control of this virus. Although no vaccines for this pandemic have been discovered yet, deep learning techniques proved themselves to be a powerful tool in the arsenal used by clinicians for the automatic diagnosis of COVID-19. In line with previous work that has argued on the value of online real-time data in the monitoring and forecasting epidemics and outbreaks, it is evident that such infodemiology approaches can assist public health policy makers, in order to address the most crucial issue; that of flattening the curve, allocating health resources, and increasing the effectiveness and preparedness of the respective health care systems. AIDS is a non-curable disease and destroys the immune system of the human body. This study will provide new lead compounds and targets for further in vitro and in vivo studies of SARS-CoV-2, new insights for those drugs currently ongoing clinical studies, and also possible new strategies for drug repositioning to treat SARS-CoV-2 infections. In the era of data, big data analytics is one of the key competitive resources for most organizations. Big data applications have introduced cutting-edge possibilities in every aspect of our daily life. COVID-19 has rapidly affected our day to day life (health, social and economy), businesses, disrupted the world trade and movements. J Big Data Page5of15 1. Thanks to the latest advancements in the field of molecular and computational techniques and information and communication technologies (ICTs), artificial intelligence (AI) and Big Data can help in handling the huge, unprecedented amount of data derived from public health, During the difficult times that the world is facing due to the COVID-19 pandemic that has already had severe consequences in all aspects of our lives, it is imperative to explore novel approaches of monitoring and forecasting the regional outbreaks as they happen or even before they do. It furnishes the companies with a 360-degree view of its customers. This chapter presents medical perspective of COVID-19 towards epidemiological triad and the study of state-of-the-art. A data-driven network modeling analysis, Effects of COVID 19 pandemic in daily life, Analysis of therapeutic targets for SARS-CoV-2 and discovery of potential drugs by computational methods, Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning: A New Disruptive Force in Orthopaedics, Class I histone deacetylase inhibition is synthetic lethal with BRCA1 deficiency in breast cancer cells, Technology and Innovation: The Game Changer of the Next Decade, Response to COVID-19 in Taiwan: Big Data Analytics, New Technology, and Proactive Testing, Presumed Asymptomatic Carrier Transmission of COVID-19, Preparing for the Most Critically Ill Patients With COVID-19: The Potential Role of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation, Additive manufacturing, it's understanding through 3DScanning and Polyjet printing, Role of 3D Printing and 3D Scanner for Product Design and Development, Study of Innovation Management practices in Indian MSMEs, Detecting Suspected Epidemic Cases Using Trajectory Big Data, How Big Data and Artificial Intelligence Can Help Better Manage the COVID-19 Pandemic, On the predictability of COVID-19 in USA: A Google Trends analysis, Data Analytics: COVID-19 Prediction Using Multimodal Data. It helps in research, and development of new treatment procedure. There's also a huge influx of performance data tha… Many countries are locking their population and enforcing strict quarantine to control the spread of the havoc of this highly communicable disease. ), a lot of persons have died and a lot more are still in danger. Analysis of therapeutic targets f. covery of potential drugs by computational methods. ple and, thus, help to handle the stressful situation. EU is faced with … In order to read online Applications Of Big Data In Healthcare textbook, you need to create a FREE account. Overall, this technology provides data to undertake analysis of the, disease transmission, movement, and health monitoring and, In the surgical speciality of Orthopaedics, the big data, can help in the predictive analysis of Orthopaedic and, and morbidity mimic the current pandemic, and there may, be cross-fertilisation of ideas from it. ISBN 978-953-51-2489-4, eISBN 978-953-51-2490-0, PDF ISBN 978-953-51-4194-5, … Big Data analytics allows for the analysis this huge amount of data … BRCA1 plays a key role in the homologous recombination directed DNA repair, allowing its deficiency to act as a therapeutic target of DNA damaging agents. This effect induced preferential apoptosis in BRCA1−/− breast cancer cells where DNA repair system is compromised. PPT For Paper Title “Applications of big data in recent scenario” Submitted by: Prashant Kumar Sharma M.Tech Research Scholar (MACERC) 2. contributing to taking appropriate and timely decisions. jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Two animal experiments and gene expression-associated patients’ survival analysis further confirmed in vivo synthetic lethality between BRCA1 and HDAC. This review specifically discusses the systems developed for COVID-19 diagnosis using deep learning techniques and provides insights on well-known data sets used to train these networks. (2020). There are currently no registered therapies for treating coronavirus infections. In future, big data will help the pub, lic, doctors, other healthcare professionals and researchers, to track this virus and analyse the infection mechanism, to optimise the allocation of resources and accordingly. In this thesis, I’m willing to answer this question based on Professor Di Carlo’s “The Real Entity Theory and the Primary Interest of the Firm” (Di Carlo, 2020). previous data of virus inhabited or spread, thus, helps in gaining a giving advantage over newer pandemic/epidemic with previously analyzed results, Providing training and experience to students and researchers outbreak. Top 3 Applications of Big Data Across Industries Derek April 25, 2020 Applications 0 Comments Over the past few years, all academicians, prominent stakeholders, and industry influencers have made conclusions about the big data … Big Data: Related Technologies, Challenges and Future Prospects is a concise yet thorough examination of this exciting area. In recent years, technology changed our daily lives and with internet, they revolutionized our innovative pace, have produced incredible goods and services that have influenced every aspect of our world. This virus is spreading exponentially region wise. China suppressed the COVID-19 with, the help of data collection and implementing it with AI, big data components to this pandemic where AI can play, a significant role like in biomedical research, natural lan, guage processing, social media, and mining the scientific, The surgical specialty of Orthopaedics requires excel, lent surgical skills, clinical acumen, reasonable physical, strength and better understanding. Together, this study provides a new therapeutic strategy for BRCA1-deficient breast cancer by targeting two epigenetic machineries, HDAC and BET. This technology is, helpful in keeping record of the orthopaedic patients, which.