This section contains detailed instruction for developers of subtitle authoring tools that output EBU-TT or EBU-TT-D documents, and for processors of those files. be clearly labelled to explain the technique. decision that depends on other considerations, such as the speed of speech, text editing and shot synchronisation. someone we can't see or hear is responding. Live subtitles should appear word by word, from left to right, to allow maximum reading time. For example, the HbbTV standard maps both default and proportionalSansSerif to Tiresias, whereas IMSC maps proportionalSansSerif only to any font with substantially the same dimensions for rendered text as Arial. most likely to be the case in factual content, and too many "ums" can make the speaker appear ridiculous.). EBU-TT Part 1 v1.1 etc) or if the document type is undetermined then if no, Defines the directions for stacking block and inline areas within a region area. 'I never want to BBC requirement: The font size shall be explicitly set, without relying on the default initial value. Line breaks within a word are especially disruptive to the reading process and should be avoided. If the subtitles for a song don't start from its first line, show this by using two continuation dots at the beginning: # ..Now I need a tts:overflow attribute of the corresponding region.

s: this is a constraint in EBU-TT and EBU-TT-D rather than in TTML. Begin and end times are not permitted on frigging - put this in. The following table lists standard EBU-TT elements and their required values. ‘ITC Guidance on Standards for BBC Reith, named after our organisation's founder, John Reith, is a contemporary humanist typeface. The editorial guidelines in the Presentation section are written in plain English, requiring only general familiarity with subtitles. work today, are you(?). or elements. For example: I saw the man who (This is register: mother vs mum; deceased vs dead; intercourse vs sex; nationality: mom vs mum; trousers vs pants; era: wireless vs radio; hackney cab vs taxi. There’s no wisdom to destroy, # Turn to wisdom, Avoid using the same colour for more than one speaker - it can cause a lot of confusion for the viewer. We currently broadcast teletext subtitles on our digital satellite platforms: by connecting a television to a set top box using for example a SCART connector it is still possible to Letters to show a stammer should follow the case of the first letter of used in most instances, with caps reserved for heavier emphasis (e.g. If it is part of the action, e.g. screen, speed of speech or editing and visual content. However, do not underestimate how useful the occasional indication of stress can be for conveying meaning: I know that, but WHEN online € ♫ (replaces # to indicate music) ← → (arrows can replace < and >). In humorous sequences, it is important to retain as much of the humour as possible. If the unfinished sentence is a question or exclamation, put three dots (not two) before the question mark or exclamation mark. Must accurately reflect the number of subtitles in the file. slow speaker/on-screen It is generally simpler to keep punctuation in songs to a minimum, with punctuation only within lines (when it is grammatically necessary) and not at the end of lines (except for question marks). However, when an out-of-shot speaker needs to be distinguished from an in-shot speaker of the same colour, or when the source of off-screen/off-camera speech is not obvious from the visible HTML and CSS sadly do not work on Ovipets. by putting groups of words that appear with the same timing within a span with begin and end attributes. When assessing the amount of time that a subtitle needs to remain on the screen, think about much more than the number of Many subtitles therefore start on the first frame of the shot and end on the last frame. have an origin x coordinate of 14.375%) to allow for it to be displayed in its entirety even if a centre cut out is used to display the central 4:3 area of a 16:9 root container region. You may need to show a pause between two sentences within one subtitle. Victor accommodates overscan, so the 8% is approximate. This is an empty element. Not all possible elements are included (for example, elements required for Wait until the bang actually happens, even to vary the timing to convey the full meaning of the original. Remove unnecessary line breaks and white space at the beginning or end of a < When I find out set. >. https://tech.ebu.ch/publications/tech3264. by Tchaikovsky. If the amount of placing needed would mean editing See the EBU-TT specification], "Enhanced Teletext Level 1" | "DVBBitmapSubtititles" | "EBU-TT-D". The speech text alone may not always be enough to establish the origin of an overseas/regional speaker. Note that the recommended behaviour for, When laying out line areas inset the line areas by twice the value of. Represents a logical paragraph. The below table lists the required document metadata values for BBC subtitle documents based on EBU-TT Part 1 v1.1, which is not yet in active use. Where

s are used for semantic information, it may be specified as metadata, using attributes such as The top level element carries parameters needed for presenting the content. Most of the time, i.e. Assistance with these guidelines and specific technical questions can be emailed to subtitle-guidelines@bbc.co.uk. displayed). /
hierarchy. ttp:clockMode="utc" to indicate this information. the lines in the centre of the screen. When several values The subtitles should match the pace of speaking as closely as possible. See the references for more detail on this. The “master-brand” typeface is named after the organisation’s founder Lord John Reith, and has started to be rolled out gradually starting on BBC Sport.. To design the typeface the BBC worked with type foundry Dalton Maag. a descendant overrides it with a different style. Indicates a BBC requirement that is additional to the base (general) specification. Note that there is no uniform implementation of the value "normal" by CSS-based rendering processors. For instance, if you have given 3:12 for one subtitle, you must not then give 4:12 to subsequent subtitles of similar length - unless there is a very good reason: e.g. 4" diagonal screen size) the presentation size should be the unmodified authored font size (i.e. Subtitles delivered as XML (EBU-TT or EBU-TT-D) require that characters with special significance in XML are escaped: Quote marks within subtitle content don't have to be escaped. Use a wide font such as Verdana to minimise the risk of text overflowing the region when rendered in the final display font. online Instead of # the symbol, ♫ may be used. Content elements can be timed using begin and Depending on the speed of speech, there are exceptions to this general recommendation (see live As well as dialogue, all editorially significant sound effects must be subtitled. In EBU-TT-based implementations, line length is determined by the following attributes: Because line breaks require considering all of the above, they are better inserted manually. In addition to the standard EBU-TT elements listed above, the BBC requires the below metadata elements within a Cumulatives are particularly useful in the following situations: Make sure there is sufficient time to read each segment of a cumulative, especially the final one. However, viewers tend to prefer verbatim subtitles, so the rate may be adjusted to match the pace of the programme. The current logo of BBC, which was redesigned by Lambie Nairn and introduced in 1997, consists of three blocks, each containing one letter. matching shots), you will find it difficult to avoid slipping slightly out of sync. Delivery of v1.1 files must be See also tts:wrapOption. It is not necessary to simplify or translate for deaf or hard-of-hearing viewers. of existing files with legacy techniques is acceptable, but unless specifically requested, new content should not use legacy techniques. Hello. If you would like to tell us what you think about our new look, then email us by using the form at the foot of this page. 3264-E. Subtitles for new speakers must, as far as possible, come up as the new speaker starts to speak. For example: Air is displaced as water is poured into the bottle. tts:textAlign. current actively used format. Instead, this document provides some guidelines and practical advice. You may not be able directly to key in some of the other allowed characters. Required. I'm glad to hear that. If there are shot changes within the sequence, should the subtitles be synchronised with those? metadata element. This is not only condescending, it is also frustrating for lip-readers. Sentences should be segmented at natural linguistic breaks such that each subtitle forms an integrated linguistic unit. Speech can be inaudible for different reasons. Defines the time coordinate system for all time expressions. Most subtitle authoring In obeying this convention it is most important to avoid obscuring ‘on-screen’ Italics can be specified by using tts:fontStyle="italic" on a style referenced by a span. left unset, or set to "auto") since it can result in lines being moved horizontally whenever a new word appears. Try not to leave a subtitle on screen when the next shot contains no speech and shows the character's (i.e. are mutually exclusive, then well-edited text and timing are more important than line-breaks. TTML examples provided by That new

This string is appended with a hyphen and the value of the Revision It is also simpler to transform EBU-TT Part 1 into EBU-TT-D if pixel units are not used, since no calculations need to be made relating pixel values to the tts:extent attribute of the tt element. to identify speakers). Note, however, that the size of line padding is expressed in cell units, requiring additional calculation. If this approach is adopted italics should be The attribute can have one of these values only (see, Background colour of an inline area generated by a. You can see how metal is recycled if we follow the aluminium. This is most likely to happen in an interchange between speakers, where the first speaker talks much faster than the second. broadcast Left, right and centre justification can be useful to identify speaker position, especially in cases where there are more than three speakers on screen. better television service. in a subtitle at the beginning of the file. Full-Clock-value: hh:mm:ss followed by an optional fraction The arrows are always typed in white regardless of the text colour of the speaker. Add labels if required (e.g. The font used for the letters is very similar to a sans serif called Gill Sans Std. Problems occur with justification when a short sentence or phrase is followed by a longer one. This font height is the largest size needed for presentation and is an authoring requirement. However, the BBC requires certain values in particular elements of the General Subtitle Information Block. If overlapping regions are active simultaneously draw them in region definition order, i.e. Note additional attributes may be required. Set this explicitly even if using defaults. 10:10:10:20 would map in an EBU-TT document to an reaction, as this distracts from the reaction and spoils the punchline. Similarly, if you want a font size of 10px, then specify 0.625em (10/16 = 0.625); for 22px, specify 1.375em (22/16). No such restriction exists for EBU-TT-D documents intended for online-only presentation, however care should be taken that there is a reasonable expectation that the presentation device will have a font Try to cue the texts of pre-recorded segments so that they closely match the spoken words in terms of start time. at linguistically coherent points, taking eye-movement into careful consideration. #. Моя скромная коллекция моделей красного цвета в восемнадцатом масштабе. The worst is the actual message list for areas like the Inbox and Sent Items, but other areas are also small, like To, Cc, and Subject in new messages. for backing singers. Where there is a time-lapse between the two subtitles, put three For example, if you subtitle a scene where a character is speaking rapidly, these are some of the decisions you may have to make: Clearly, it is not possible (or advisable) to provide a set of hard rules that cover all situations. Timing may be applied to a tt:p element using the No changes need to be made to other styling attributes to accommodate processors potentially using a smaller font, however care needs to be taken when positioning subtitles in case a smaller font is used, as the following examples show: The font size is determined by tts:fontSize in combination with ttp:cellResolution. On both sides of every line, the background colour should extend by the width of 0.5 em. Most subtitles are typed in white text on a black background to ensure optimum legibility. horizontal positioning may be used. since subtitles remaining too long on the screen are likely to be re-read by the viewer. Any subtitle text in a tt:p must be within a Familiarise yourself with Prepared segments that have been subtitled and their place in the running order, but be prepared for the order to change. For small mobile phones (e.g. If the information contained within the graphics is off-topic from what is being spoken, then the information should not be replicated in the subtitle. JAMES: Since its foundation, the logo of BBC has undergone several changes. ttm:role, xml:lang etc and/or a Roboto in Android). For accented characters see Typography. Your aim is to minimise lag between speech and the appearance of the subtitle. TTML is a markup language based on XML, using structural elements like in HTML - head, body, div, p and span, with styling semantics taken from XSL-FO and timing semantics taken from SMIL. 1.2 seconds for a 4-word subtitle). for BBC subtitle documents based on EBU-TT Part 1 v1, which is the For a Cockney speaker, for instance, it would be appropriate to include quite a few "caffs", "missus" and "ain'ts", but not to replace every single dropped "h" and "g" with an apostrophe. 10/9/06 - Bug Fix - Color and Size. Check out the fonts used in famous logos and covers of various music albums. example). In STL binary files, characters are encoded according to the table in Appendix 1. "editedLive". If you have to let a subtitle hang over a shot change, do not remove it too soon after the cut. In the following tables, prefixes are used as shortcuts for the following namespaces: The BBC metadata scheme used. Aim for continuity in subtitles by following through a train of thought where possible, rather than sampling the commentary at intervals.

and Presentation processors usually use a narrower font (e.g. A dog barking in one scene could be entirely trivial; in another it could be a vital See ttp:cellResolution. The BBC has commissioned a new typeface, BBC Reith which will make text easier to read on screen and “will also save the BBC money”. 1999. The behaviour of this attribute in combination with tts:textAlign is as defined in Annex C in. Brackets can also be used to indicate an aside, which may or may not be whispered. The region's origin x coordinate must be greater than or equal to 12.5% of the root container region for a 16:9 active video (this allows for a 4:3 centre cut). News and documentaries. words on the screen; this would be an unacceptably crude approach. sub-edit incoherent speech into beautiful prose. What could you do from their However, if two or more WHITE text speakers are interacting, you have to start a new line for each new speaker, preceded by a dash. the width of text on each line so that the text does not overflow. However, in a drama or comedy where a character's accent is crucial to the plot or enjoyment, the subtitles must establish the accent when we first see the character and continue to reflect it clue to the story-line. For example, consecutive subtitles may reflect better the pace of speech. times, should be represented by timed Circumstances which could mean giving less reading time are: Give less time if the target timing would involve clipping a shot, or crossing into an unrelated, "empty" [containing no speech] shot. Put each piece of speech on a separate line or lines and place it underneath the relevant speaker. Optional. The text colour must be explicitly set to a value that is one of the values listed below (see Document Requirements). The BBC needed a strong yet respectful typographic identity that was respectful of content, would appeal to a diverse audience (pre-schoolers to the elderly) and convey the traditional qualities of the BBC One image. In general, ‘long and thin’ subtitles are less disruptive of picture content than are ‘short and fat’ subtitles, but this is not always The correction should be preceded by two dashes: The minster’s shrew They may be short but they are often essential for expressing meaning. The longest line should be centred on the screen, with the shorter line/lines left-aligned with it (not centred). also user-defined preferences. From the mid-1970s to the mid-1980s, the BBC1 channel logo used several different fonts, but with each change the logo remained blue. Used to apply style information to the enclosed textual content. For instance, "LIONS ROAR" would become something like: In general, the numeral form should be used. Generic container for the programme script elements. The BBC Sport website has undergone some big changes. Subtitle disappearance should coincide roughly with the end of the corresponding speech segment, When subtitling schools programmes, introduce complex vocabulary in very simple sentences and keep it on screen for as In this case, lines are constrained by the width of the region in which they are displayed. Fall back to the system defined sans serif font if a downloadable font is not available. speaks very fast, you have to edit as much as is necessary in order to meet the timing requirements (see timing). Required if also targeting broadcast applications. Non-breaking spaces can be inserted to simulate the indent behaviour reasonably closely. a subtitle that starts in the middle of shot one and ends in the middle of shot two). Type: EBU Tech 3264]. 2009. Having edited one subtitle, bear your edit in mind when creating the next subtitle. "4:3" ("16:9" allowed for online use only). This is an example of a prepared subtitle file. You should aim to tamper with the original as little as possible - just give it the odd tweak to make it intelligible. If the subtitle zero is included in the embedded STL file and is included in the body of the EBU-TT document then they SHALL be identical. In contrast, to follow the technical instructions in the File format section you will need good working knowledge of XML and CSS. This is valid: Note, however, that curly quotes are not included in the list of allowed characters (some word processors transform straight quotes to curly ones automatically). ebuttm:binaryDataElement. The calculated font size must fit within a line height of between 7% and 9% of the active video height. If a piece of speech is impossible to make out, you will have to put up a label saying why: Avoid subjective labels such as "UNINTELLIGIBLE" or "INCOMPREHENSIBLE" or "HE BABBLES INCOHERENTLY". Line 18 is used if three subtitle lines are required). This sometimes works, but more often than not the change of tense produces a nonsense sentence. The above is more applicable to factual content, e.g. Enter the correct year in the copyright element in the template: BBC 2016.