Fabius' tactic of refusing to meet Hannibal in open battle was beginning to wear on the Romans who demanded direct action. Fabius became known as "the delayer" by refusing to face Hannibal directly and delaying any face-to-face engagement; he preferred instead to strategically place his armies to prevent Hannibal from either attacking or retreating from Italy. [52] The Roman legions forced their way through Hannibal's weak center, but the Libyan mercenaries on the wings, swung around by the movement, menaced their flanks. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. Hannibal's Iberian and Gallic heavy cavalry, led by Hanno on the left, defeated the Roman heavy cavalry, and then both the Carthaginian heavy cavalry and the Numidians attacked the legions from behind. Hannibal's strategies, learned so well by Scipio, were incorporated into Roman tactics and Rome would consistently use them to good effect following the Battle of Zama. [65] The Romans followed up their success by attacking Antiochus' holdings in Asia Minor and the Seleucid Empire was decisively defeated at the battle of Magnesia in 190 BC by Lucius Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus. Although Rome had won the First Punic War, revanchism prevailed in Carthage, symbolised by the alleged pledge that Hannibal made to his father never to be a friend of Rome. It seemed that Hannibal had to either fight his way out or surrender but then, one night, the Romans saw a line of torches moving from the Carthaginian camp emplacement toward an area they knew was held by a strong garrison of their own. Most recently, W.C. Mahaney has argued Col de la Traversette closest fits the records of ancient authors. The Romans and allied legions resolved to confront Hannibal and marched southward to Apulia. According to Appian, several years after the Second Punic War, Hannibal served as a political advisor in the Seleucid Kingdom and Scipio arrived there on a diplomatic mission from Rome. Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. He maintained this post for eight years until 221 BC. The wars between Rome and Carthage will see some of the most bloody and savage battles of all time. Hannibal's perilous march brought him into the Roman territory and frustrated the attempts of the enemy to fight out the main issue on foreign ground. In 210 BC, Hannibal again proved his superiority in tactics by inflicting a severe defeat at the Battle of Herdonia (modern Ordona) in Apulia upon a proconsular army and, in 208 BC, destroyed a Roman force engaged in the siege of Locri at the Battle of Petelia. Freud then associates it with the adage "All roads lead to Rome". Hannibal's army, made up of about 46,000 men, and included 37 battle elephants. 2000. What Hannibal achieved in extricating his army was, as Adrian Goldsworthy puts it, "a classic of ancient generalship, finding its way into nearly every historical narrative of the war and being used by later military manuals". His position in southern Italy, therefore, became increasingly difficult and his chance of ultimately conquering Rome grew ever more remote. [1] Military historian Theodore Ayrault Dodge called Hannibal the "father of strategy",[2] because Roman armies adopted elements of his military tactics into their own strategic arsenal. [33] Other scholars have doubts, proposing that Hannibal took the easier route across Petit Mount Cenis. He then advanced through the uplands of Etruria, provoking Flaminius into a hasty pursuit and catching him in a defile on the shore of Lake Trasimenus. P.53. [110] They are also present as allies in the Drifters manga, where they were teleported to another dimension to wage war together. The heavy fines imposed on defeated Carthage by Rome, intended to cripple the city, were easily paid owing to the reforms Hannibal initiated. Scipio was severely injured, his life only saved by the bravery of his son who rode back onto the field to rescue his fallen father. Carthage could not beat Rome's army, but Rome could not beat Carthage's Navy. He writes indeed in The Interpretation of Dreams: "Hannibal and Rome symbolized for the adolescent that I was the opposition between the tenacity of Judaism and the organizing spirit of the Catholic Church".[107]. [57] Indeed, Fabius received the name "Cunctator" ("the Delayer") because of his policy of not meeting Hannibal in open battle but through attrition. Fabius chose war.[18]. [85][86] Indeed, throughout the war Roman aristocrats ferociously competed with each other for positions of command to fight against Rome's most dangerous enemy. Due to these brilliant tactics, Hannibal managed to surround and destroy all but a small remnant of his enemy, despite his own inferior numbers. Hannibal's forces moved through the Po Valley and were engaged in the Battle of Ticinus. The authors add an apocryphal story of how Hannibal planned and supervised the building of the new royal capital Artaxata. In 212 BC, Marcellus conquered Syracuse and the Romans destroyed the Carthaginian army in Sicily in 211–210 BC. Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. The Punic Wars proved that, while the Roman land armies could be defeated, when put in the hands of an experienced commander like Scipio, they could arguably the … After the Battle of Trebbia (218 BCE), where he again defeated the Romans, he retreated for the winter to the north where he developed his plans for the spring campaign and developed various strategems to keep from being assassinated by spies in his camp or hired killers sent by the Romans. Oct 26, 2020 - Explore Trevor Robichaux Sr.'s board "Hannibal Barca" on Pinterest. The first Hannibal knew of Hasdrubal's defeat was when a Roman contingent threw his brother's head to the sentries of his camp. [89] This may not be true, but as Lazenby states, "could well be, exemplifying as it does not only the supreme confidence felt by the Romans in ultimate victory, but also the way in which something like normal life continued. In 219 BCE the Romans orchestrated a coup in the city of of Saguntum which installed a government hostile to Carthage and her interests. Count Alfred von Schlieffen developed his eponymously titled "Schlieffen Plan" (1905/1906) from his military studies, with a particularly heavy emphasis on the envelopment technique which Hannibal employed to surround and destroy the Roman army in the Battle of Cannae. The Roman consuls mounted a siege of Capua in 212 BC. But he was yet greater in logistics and strategy. Plutarch states that Scipio supposedly asked Hannibal "who the greatest general was", to which Hannibal replied "either Alexander or Pyrrhus, then himself". Hannibal's chief cavalry commander Maharbal led the mobile Numidian cavalry on the right, and they shattered the Roman cavalry opposing them. With the failure of his brother Mago in Liguria (205–203 BC) and of his own negotiations with Phillip V, the last hope of recovering his ascendancy in Italy was lost. At the end of this conversation Hannibal invited Scipio to be his guest, and Scipio replied that he would be so gladly if Hannibal were not living with Antiochus, who was held in suspicion by the Romans. It is a combination of the common Carthaginian masculine given name Hanno with the Northwest Semitic Canaanite deity Baal (lit. [10] Modern historians occasionally refer to Hannibal's brothers as Hasdrubal Barca and Mago Barca to distinguish them from the multitudes of other Carthaginians named Hasdrubal and Mago,[citation needed] but this practice is ahistorical, and is rarely applied to Hannibal. In 202 BC, Hannibal met Scipio in a fruitless peace conference. He arrived in Etruria in the spring of 217 BC and decided to lure the main Roman army under Flaminius into a pitched battle by devastating the region that Flaminius had been sent to protect. Pausanias wrote that Hannibal's death occurred after his finger was wounded by his drawn sword while mounting his horse, resulting in a fever and then his death three days later. 163-180, Livy History of Rome, Book 21 sections 32–36. He left a detachment of 20,000 troops to garrison the newly conquered region. Hannibal's strategy of presenting himself as a liberator worked and a number of cities chose to side with him against Rome while his victories on the field continued to swell his ranks with new recruits. For steadfastness of purpose, for organizing capacity and a mastery of military science he has perhaps never had an equal.[100]. Battle of Cannae - Initial Deploymentby The Department of History, United States Military Academy (Public Domain). He succeeded, through prompt decision and speedy movement, in transporting his army to Italy by sea in time to meet Hannibal. In the wake of these victories, he moved south plundering the countryside and … [80], Hannibal caused great distress to many in Roman society. Excepting in the case of Alexander, and some few isolated instances, all wars up to the Second Punic War, had been decided largely, if not entirely, by battle-tactics. There is no doubt, as Bradford also notes, that had Hannibal "been fighting against any other nation in the ancient world...his overwhelming victories would have brought them to their knees and to an early capitulation" (210) but the cause of Hannibal's defeat was just as much the fault of the Carthaginian elite who refused to support the general and his troops who were fighting for their cause. Starting in the spring of 218 BC, he crossed the Pyrenees and reached the Rhône by conciliating the Gaulish chiefs along his passage before the Romans could take any measures to bar his advance, arriving at the Rhône in September. No captain ever marched to and fro among so many armies of troops superior to his own numbers and material as fearlessly and skillfully as he. This, he wrote, made Hannibal believe that he would die in Libya, but instead, it was at the Bithynian Libyssa that he would die. Fabius was within striking distance but in this case his caution worked against him. He was called back to Africa to defend Carthage from Roman invasion, was defeated at the Battle of Zama in 202 BCE by Scipio Africanus (l. 236-183 BCE) and retired from service to Carthage. An undeniable proof of Rome's confidence is demonstrated by the fact that after the Cannae disaster she was left virtually defenseless, but the Senate still chose not to withdraw a single garrison from an overseas province to strengthen the city. A street in Carthage, located near the Punic ports, bears his name as well as a stop of the Carthage metro, the TGM "Carthage Hannibal". During one of the naval victories he gained over Eumenes, Hannibal had large pots filled with venomous snakes thrown onto Eumenes' ships. He was still a child when his sisters married, and his brothers-in-law were close associates during his father's struggles in the Mercenary War and the Punic conquest of the Iberian Peninsula. Hannibal, by skillful maneuvers, was in position to head him off, for he lay on the direct road between Placentia and Arminum, by which Sempronius would have to march to reinforce Scipio. Second Punic War (218-201) By 219, Carthage was recovering from the costs of the First Punic War and was looking to expand her empire, particularly in Spain. Livy also records that Hannibal married a woman of Castulo, a powerful Spanish city closely allied with Carthage. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. No records exist of  Carthage awarding Hannibal any recognition for his service in Italy and he was honored more by Scipio's pardon and defense than by any actions on the part of his countrymen. On this occasion, the two armies were combined into one, the consuls having to alternate their command on a daily basis. A counter-invasion of North Africa led by Scipio Africanus forced him to return to Carthage. Hannibal Barca (/ˈhænɪbəl/; Punic: 𐤇𐤍𐤁𐤏𐤋𐤟𐤁𐤓𐤒, ḤannibaÊ¿l Baraq; 247 â€“ between 183 and 181 BC) was a Carthaginian general and statesman who commanded Carthage's main forces against the Roman Republic during the Second Punic War. See more ideas about Hannibal barca, Hannibal, Punic wars. "[88], In the Senate the news was "received with varying feelings as men's temperaments differed,"[88] so it was decided to keep Capua under siege, but to send 15,000 infantry and 1,000 cavalry as reinforcements to Rome. In his first few years in Italy, he won a succession of dramatic victories at the Trebia, Lake Trasimene, and Cannae. On his return home, laden with many spoils, a coalition of Spanish tribes, led by the Carpetani, attacked, and Hannibal won his first major battlefield success and showed off his tactical skills at the battle of the River Tagus. In contrast, the Romans suffered only 2,500 casualties. As Lazenby states, It says volumes, too, for their political maturity and respect for constitutional forms that the complicated machinery of government continued to function even amidst disaster—there are few states in the ancient world in which a general who had lost a battle like Cannae would have dared to remain, let alone would have continued to be treated respectfully as head of state. In fact, they were reinforced and the campaigns there maintained until victory was secured; beginning first in Sicily under the direction of Claudius Marcellus, and later in Hispania under Scipio Africanus. Hannibal reportedly entered Gaul with 40,000-foot soldiers and 12,000 horsemen. [31] Recent numismatic evidence suggests that Hannibal's army may have passed within sight of the Matterhorn. He said, "Let us put an end to this life, which has caused so much dread to the Romans" and then drank poison. Before dying, Hannibal is said to have left behind a letter declaring, "Let us relieve the Romans from the anxiety they have so long experienced, since they think it tries their patience too much to wait for an old man's death". Hannibal (247-183 BCE) was the greatest general to emerge from the Carthaginian Barca family. Hannibal decided that it would be unwise to winter in the already devastated lowlands of Campania, but Fabius had ensured that all the passes were blocked out of Campania. In the story, Hannibal's father took him up and brought him to a sacrificial chamber. Hunt responds to this by proposing that Hannibal's Celtic guides purposefully misguided the Carthaginian general. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. Historical events which led to the defeat of Carthage during the First Punic War when his father commanded the Carthaginian Army also led Hannibal to plan the invasion of Italy by land across the Alps. The Wars were notable for the Carthaginian General Hannibal's Crossing over the Alps with elephants in the Second Punic War and for Rome's complete razing of Carthage in the Third Punic War… Punic Wars, also called Carthaginian Wars, (264–146 bce ), a series of three wars between the Roman Republic and the Carthaginian (Punic) empire, resulting in the destruction of Carthage, the enslavement of its population, and Roman hegemony over the western Mediterranean. When Phormio finished a discourse on the duties of a general, Hannibal was asked his opinion. [59] His arrival immediately restored the predominance of the war party, which placed him in command of a combined force of African levies and his mercenaries from Italy. Here, Hannibal forced the Romans to evacuate the plain of Lombardy, by virtue of his superior cavalry. When the garrison mobilized to march out and meet Hannibal in battle, however, they found only cattle with torches tied on their horns and Hannibal's army had slipped away through the pass the Romans had left untended. During this same time, in Rome, the charges against Scipio had disgusted him so much that he retreated to his estate outside the city and left orders in his will that he be buried there instead of in Rome. Alarmed by this, the armies surrounding Capua go to Rome, where they are slaughtered by Hannibal. The Mercenary, or Truceless, War began in 241 BC as a dispute over the payment of wages owed to 20,000 foreign soldiers who had fought for Carthage on Sicily during the First Punic War. Mahaney, W.C., Allen, C.C.R., Pentlavalli, P., Dirszowsky, O., Tricart, P., Keiser, L., Somelar, P., Kelleher, B., Murphy, B., Costa, P.J.M., and Julig, P., 2014, "Polybius's ‘previous landslide’: proof that Hannibal's invasion route crossed the Col de la Traversette". He is widely considered one of the greatest military commanders in world history. With their foremost general defeated, the Carthaginians had no choice but to surrender. As the two consuls traded off command of the army, it worked to Hannibal's advantage that the more ambitious and reckless of the two, Varro, held supreme authority on the first day of battle. But those same principles of war that applied to the days of Hannibal apply today."[106]. This area was practically one huge marsh, and happened to be overflowing more than usual during this particular season. P.313-314, Baier, Thomas. [52], After Cannae, the Romans were very hesitant to confront Hannibal in pitched battle, preferring instead to weaken him by attrition, relying on their advantages of interior lines, supply, and manpower. The newly appointed Hannibal laid siege to the city of Saguntum on the eastern coast of Iberia (as Spain was known at the time). Thank you! He changed these constantly, each time changing his apparel to match his appearance. Some historians say that the elephants routed the Carthaginian cavalry and not the Romans, whilst others suggest that it was actually a tactical retreat planned by Hannibal. No surviving ancient biography makes him the subject, and Hannibal slips in and out of focus according to the emphasis that other authors give his deeds and character. His campaign across the Alps, unthinkable even in his day, won him the grudging admiration of his enemies and enduring fame ever since. Hannibal started the war without the full backing of Carthaginian oligarchy. Some qualities have been recognized by Hannibal since Antiquity: audacity, courage and pugnacity. The fired rockfall event is mentioned only by Livy; Polybius is mute on the subject and there is no evidence[42] of carbonized rock at the only two-tier rockfall in the Western Alps, located below the Col de la Traversette (Mahaney, 2008). When Hannibal refused, Maharbal said, "You know how to win a victory, Hannibal, but you do not know how to use it." His father was Hamilcar Barca (l. 275-228 BCE), the great general of the First Punic War (264-241 BCE). Also, Carthage was to reduce its fleet and pay a war indemnity. [91][92] Although the long-term consequences of Hannibal's war are debatable, this war was undeniably Rome's "finest hour". He quickly took the Carthaginian city of Utica and marched on toward Carthage. Neither side won. [25] The delegation's leader, Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus, demanded Carthage chose between war and peace, to which his audience replied that Rome could choose. Studien zu Plautus' Poenulus. His sudden appearance among the Gauls of the Po Valley, moreover, enabled him to detach those tribes from their new allegiance to the Romans before the Romans could take steps to check the rebellion. At the Pyrenees, he released 11,000 Iberian troops who showed reluctance to leave their homeland. The Roman cavalry won an early victory by swiftly routing the Carthaginian horse, and standard Roman tactics for limiting the effectiveness of the Carthaginian war elephants were successful, including playing trumpets to frighten the elephants into running into the Carthaginian lines. When the Roman army advanced, the center of the Carthaginian line began to give way so that it seemed as though Varro had been correct and the center would break. [66], In 190 BC, Hannibal was placed in command of a Seleucid fleet but was defeated in the battle of the Eurymedon. Thus Hannibal continued his self-laudation, but flattered Scipio in an indirect manner by suggesting that he had conquered one who was the superior of Alexander. [15], Hannibal's father went about the conquest of Hispania. Hannibal marched boldly around Flaminius' left flank, unable to draw him into battle by mere devastation, and effectively cut him off from Rome (thus executing the first recorded turning movement in military history). However, Hannibal slowly began losing ground—inadequately supported by his Italian allies, abandoned by his government (either because of jealousy or simply because Carthage was overstretched), and unable to match Rome's resources. He was 65 years old. https://www.ancient.eu/hannibal/. The two armies met at the Ticino River where the Romans were defeated and Scipio almost killed, Carthaginian War Elephantby The Creative Assembly (Copyright). He left his brother Hasdrubal Barca (l. c. 244-207 BCE) in charge of the armies in Spain and set out with his men for Italy. The Roman senate refused and so Scipio shamed them by raising his own army and appealing to the people of Rome for support; the senate then relented and gave him command of Sicily from which to launch his invasion of North Africa. [87], According to the historian Livy, the Romans feared Hannibal's military genius, and during Hannibal's march against Rome in 211 BC, "a messenger who had travelled from Fregellae for a day and a night without stopping created great alarm in Rome, and the excitement was increased by people running about the City with wildly exaggerated accounts of the news he had brought. It seems that the Romans lulled themselves into a false sense of security, having dealt with the threat of a Gallo-Carthaginian invasion, and perhaps knowing that the original Carthaginian commander had been killed. The 2nd Punic War began with the Carthaginian General Hannibal lauching a surprise attack on Roman from the north, by taking his army north through Spain. With a small detachment still positioned in Gaul, Scipio made an attempt to intercept Hannibal. Never was one and the same spirit more skillful to meet opposition, to obey, or to command[.]"[18]. He drew off 15,000 Roman soldiers, but the siege continued and Capua fell. Mark, J. J. A History Of: Hannibal and the Punic Wars is a biweekly biography of everybody's favourite Carthaginian general. The Second Punic War was often known as Hannibal’s War in Rome. His father, Hamilcar Barca, was a leading Carthaginian commander during the First Punic War. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. [36] Polybius wrote that Hannibal had crossed the highest of the Alpine passes: Col de la Traversette, between the upper Guil valley and the upper Po river is the highest pass. Related Content [56] The works of Roman writers such as Livy (64 or 59 BC – AD 12 or 17), Frontinus (c. AD 40 – 103), and Juvenal (1st to 2nd century AD) show a grudging admiration for Hannibal. (210). We follow Hannibal throughout his campaigns as well as looking at the Punic Wars at large. Hannibal. Please help us create teaching materials on Mesopotamia (including several complete lessons with worksheets, activities, answers, essay questions, and more), which will be free to download for teachers all over the world. Maximilian Otto Bismarck Caspari, in his article in the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910-1911), praises Hannibal in these words: As to the transcendent military genius of Hannibal there cannot be two opinions. Antiochus met defeat at the Battle of Magnesia and was forced to accept Rome's terms, and Hannibal fled again, making a stop in the Kingdom of Armenia. The historian Ernle Bradford writes that Hannibal's war against the Romans, may be regarded as the last effort of the old eastern and Semitic peoples to prevent the domination of the Mediterranean world by a European state. The people of Rome mobilized to defend their city, which they were sure Hannibal would move on next. Scipio had studied Hannibal's tactics carefully in the same way that Hannibal had always taken pains to know his enemy and out-think his opponents. Since 2011, Hannibal is one of the main characters, with Scipio Africanus, of the "Ad Astra" manga in which Mihachi Kagano traces the course of the Second Punic War. His brothers-in-law were Hasdrubal the Fair and the Numidian king Naravas. They eventually found him on the left bank of the Aufidus River, and encamped ten kilometres (6 mi) away. The loss of the First Punic War led directly to the general Hannibal Barca invading Roman territory during the Second Punic War. While there is some truth to this, Hannibal's ultimate defeat was brought about by his own people's weakness for luxury, wealth, and ease as much as by the Roman refusal to surrender after Cannae. [101] Thus he was hard to recognize, not just by those who saw him briefly, but even by those who knew him well. [61] After an audit confirmed Carthage had the resources to pay the indemnity without increasing taxation, Hannibal initiated a reorganization of state finances aimed at eliminating corruption and recovering embezzled funds. On the way, recognizing the importance of winning the people to his side, he portrayed himself as a liberator freeing the people of Spain from Roman control. Hannibal, in the meantime, was forced to continue his previous strategy of striking at Rome in quickly orchestrated engagements, and trying to win city-states to his cause, without being able to take any city by storm. P.126–128, Benz, Franz L. 1982. Appian writes that it was Prusias who poisoned Hannibal. The Carthaginian cavalry had now closed the gap behind and the forces of Rome were completely surrounded. [18] The Roman epic poet Silius Italicus names her as Imilce. Scipio defended Hannibal as an honorable man and kept the Romans from sending a delegation demanding his arrest but Hannibal understood it was only a matter of time before his own countrymen turned him over and so he fled the city in 195 BCE for Tyre and then moved on to Asia Minor where he was given the position of consultant to Antiochus III (the Great, r. 223-187 BCE) of the Seleucid Empire. Mark, published on 29 March 2018 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Following the First Punic War the treaty between Carthage and Rome stipulated that Carthage could continue to occupy regions in Spain as long as they maintained the steady tribute they now owed to Rome and remained in certain areas. The task was daunting, to say the least. Hannibal Riding a War Elephant by jaci XIII (CC BY-NC-SA) The Punic Wars were a series of conflicts fought between the forces of ancient Carthage and … But with the loss of Tarentum in 209 BC and the gradual reconquest by the Romans of Samnium and Lucania, his hold on south Italy was almost lost. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. Indeed, the breadth of his vision gave rise to his grand strategy of conquering Rome by opening a northern front and subduing allied city-states on the peninsula, rather than by attacking Rome directly. [26] Hasdrubal was assassinated around the same time (221 BC), bringing Hannibal to the fore. He moved to Lucania and destroyed a 16,000-man Roman army at the Battle of the Silarus, with 15,000 Romans killed. 0 0 [27] He fought his way through the northern tribes to the foothills of the Pyrenees, subduing the tribes through clever mountain tactics and stubborn fighting. [98], Military academies all over the world continue to study Hannibal's exploits, especially his victory at Cannae.[99]. Although he is by far the most famous Hannibal, when further clarification is necessary he is usually referred to as "Hannibal, son of Hamilcar", or Hannibal the Barcid, the latter term applying to the family of his father, Hamilcar Barca. The Romans sent the two consuls Lucius Aemilius Paulus (d. 216 BCE) and Caius Terentius Varro (served c. 218-200 BCE), with a force of over 80,000, against his position; Hannibal had less than 50,000 men under his command. The troops and their general had to battle not only the weather and the incline but hostile tribes who lived in the mountains. These two bodies came from the wealthy, commercial families of Carthage. It is said that at one of their meetings in the gymnasium Scipio and Hannibal had a conversation on the subject of generalship, in the presence of a number of bystanders, and that Scipio asked Hannibal whom he considered the greatest general, to which the latter replied "Alexander of Macedonia". Scholar Philip Matyszak notes: There is much we do not know about this man, though he was one of the greatest generals in antiquity. De Beer was one of only three interpreters – the others being John Lazenby and Jakob Seibert – to have visited all the Alpine high passes and presented a view on which was most plausible. Polybius, who wrote nearest the event, gives 182 BC. The main cause of the Punic Wars was the clash of interests between the existing empire of Carthage and the expanding Roman Republic. Carthaginian political will was embodied in the ruling oligarchy. Hannibal caused great distress to many in Roman society. The members of the senate, who had refused to send him aid when he needed it in Italy, accused him of betraying the interests of the state by not taking Rome when he had the chance but, still, Hannibal remained true to the interests of his people until the senators trumped up further charges and denounced Hannibal to Rome claiming he was making Carthage a power again so as to challenge the Romans. Two political factions operated in Carthage: the war party, also known as the "Barcids" (Hannibal's family name); and the peace party led by Hanno II the Great. [22] In his first campaign, Hannibal attacked and stormed the Olcades' strongest centre, Alithia, which promptly led to their surrender, and brought Punic power close to the River Tagus. 275-228 BCE), the great and undefeated hero from the first Punic War and the Mercenary War. [41] According to Polybius, he arrived in Italy accompanied by 20,000-foot soldiers, 4,000 horsemen, and only a few elephants. This strategy was unpopular with many Romans, who believed that it was a form of cowardice. [102][103] George S. Patton believed himself a reincarnation of Hannibal – as well as of many other people, including a Roman legionary and a Napoleonic soldier. When his father drowned[16] in battle, Hannibal's brother-in-law Hasdrubal the Fair succeeded to his command of the army with Hannibal (then 18 years old) serving as an officer under him. He distinguished himself for his ability to determine his and his opponent's respective strengths and weaknesses, and to plan battles accordingly. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Hannibal's vision of military affairs was derived partly from the teaching of his Greek tutors and partly from experience gained alongside his father, and it stretched over most of the Hellenistic World of his time. [75], In his Annales, Titus Pomponius Atticus reports that Hannibal's death occurred in 183 BC,[80] and Livy implies the same. Hannibal was right, however; his troops were exhausted after Cannae and he had neither elephants nor siege engines to take the city. Victory in Italy was Hannibal’s sole objective. He also used citizen support to change the term of office in the Hundred and Four from life to a year, with none permitted to "hold office for two consecutive years. He had indeed bitter enemies, and his life was one continuous struggle against destiny. [83][need quotation to verify] It is plausible to suggest that Hannibal engendered the greatest fear Rome had towards an enemy. Hamilcar held Hannibal over the fire roaring in the chamber and made him swear that he would never be a friend of Rome. Nero had been engaging Hannibal in the south but slipped away in the night, defeated Hasdrubal, and returned without Hannibal ever noticing. [18], Upon the assassination of Hasdrubal in 221 BC, Hannibal (now 26 years old) was proclaimed commander-in-chief by the army and confirmed in his appointment by the Carthaginian government. Another story, according to Aulus Gellius, is that when Antiochus III showed off the gigantic and elaborately equipped army he had created to invade Greece to Hannibal, he asked him if they would be enough for the Roman Republic, to which Hannibal replied, "I think all this will be enough, yes, quite enough, for the Romans, even though they are most avaricious. [58] This famous Latin phrase became a common expression that is often still used when a client arrives through the door or when one is faced with calamity. Sulpicius Blitho[81] records the death under 181 BC. Again, all we know of him comes for the most part from hostile sources. Lecture 13: "The Second Punic War". [24], Hannibal sent the booty from Saguntum to Carthage, a shrewd move which gained him much support from the government; Livy records that only Hanno II the Great spoke against him. When his father drowned, command of the army passed to Hasdrubal the Fair (l. c. 270-221 BCE), Hamilcar's son-in-law, and when Hasdrubal was assassinated in 221 BCE the troops unanimously called for the election of Hannibal as their commander even though he was only 25 years old at the time. He had not expected Hannibal to make an attempt to cross the Alps, since the Romans were prepared to fight the war in the Iberian Peninsula. Hannibal's troops who were lost in combat were replaced with less well-trained and motivated mercenaries from Italy or Gaul. As a result, the Roman army was hemmed in with no means of escape. Hannibal took the vow gladly - and never forgot it. The Battle of Zama - Elephant Chargeby Mohammad Adil (CC BY-SA). [32] Stanford geoarchaeologist Patrick Hunt argues that Hannibal took the Col de Clapier mountain pass, claiming the Clapier most accurately met ancient depictions of the route: wide view of Italy, pockets of year-round snow, and a large campground. He was born in what is present day northern Tunisia, one of many Mediterranean regions colonised by the Canaanites from their homelands in Phoenicia. Mahaney et al. It is recorded in Carthaginian sources as ḤNBÊ¿L[3] (Punic: 𐤇𐤍𐤁𐤏𐤋). The Romans, meanwhile, had no idea of Hannibal's movements. Written by Joshua J. But Carthage then made a terrible blunder. Hannibal, however, could make no move on Rome because he lacked siege engines and reinforcements for his army. The Carthaginian Senate responded with legal arguments observing the lack of ratification by either government for the treaty alleged to have been violated. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2020) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. Afterwards, Fabius resigned his position and Rufus disappears from history. Background . He did not even have enough men to reduce the city by encircling it for a long siege. Greek historians rendered the name as Anníbas (Ἀννίβας). Polybius merely says that he was accused of cruelty by the Romans and of avarice by the Carthaginians. He died in 183 BCE by drinking poison. Hannibal knew that this route was full of difficulties, but it remained the surest and certainly the quickest way to central Italy. Although the aging Hannibal was suffering from mental exhaustion and deteriorating health after years of campaigning in Italy, the Carthaginians still had the advantage in numbers and were boosted by the presence of 80 war elephants. After the Roman annexation of Sardinia, Hamilcar was put in command of Carthaginian expansion in Spain. Hannibal next defeated his enemies at Lake Trasimeme and quickly took control of northern Italy. as one of the best military strategists and tacticians of all time, with the double envelopment at Cannae an enduring legacy of tactical brilliance. Its long-suffering citizens had captured a stranded Roman fleet in the Gulf of Tunis and stripped it of supplies, an action that aggravated the faltering negotiations. When Hannibal launched his elephant charge, Scipio's front line simply moved aside and the elephants ran harmlessly down the alleys between the Roman troops who then killed their handlers and turned the elephants around to crush the ranks of the Carthaginians; Hannibal was defeated and the Second Punic War was over. By closely examining the accounts of Livy and Polybius, supplemented with the fruits of modern research, Lazenby provides a detailed military history of the entire war as it … Hannibal was certain he would scatter these Romans easily with an elephant charge but Scipio used his front line as a screen for a very different kind of formation: instead of the closely-packed configuration presenting a horizontal front across the line (the formation Hannibal saw from his position) he arranged his troops in vertical rows behind the front line. He marched on Rome to force the recall of the Roman armies. In 207 BC, he succeeded in making his way again into Apulia, where he waited to concert measures for a combined march upon Rome with his brother Hasdrubal. Publius Cornelius Scipio was the consul who commanded the Roman force sent to intercept Hannibal (he was also the father of Scipio Africanus). What was at stake was control of the trading around the Mediterranean sea. Hannibal then marched to the Roman supply depot of Cannae, which he took easily, and then gave his men time to rest. [93][94][need quotation to verify], Most of the sources available to historians about Hannibal are from Romans. Hannibal attacked them, forcing their withdrawal from Campania. [18] In Rome, the Senate reacted to this apparent violation of the treaty by dispatching a delegation to Carthage to demand whether Hannibal had destroyed Saguntum in accordance with orders from Carthage. In 203 BC, after nearly fifteen years of fighting in Italy, and with the military fortunes of Carthage rapidly declining, Hannibal was recalled to Carthage to direct the defense of his native country against a Roman invasion under Scipio Africanus. It is often argued that, if Hannibal had received proper material reinforcements from Carthage, he might have succeeded with a direct attack upon Rome. The Roman consuls mounted another siege of Capua in 211 BC, conquering the city. The Second Punic War broke out in 218 BC after Hannibal's attack on Saguntum, an ally of Rome in Hispania. Hannibal eagerly accepted the invitation but, before he was allowed to join up, his father "took Hannibal by the hand and led him to the altar. The other Roman consular army was rushed to the Po Valley. Hannibal established alliances with the tribes in the eastern Iberian Peninsula thanks to his diplomatic skills. Rufus attacked Hannibal near the town of Gerione and was so badly defeated that Fabius had to save him and what was left of his troops from complete annihilation. 1 The End of the Second Punic War 2 Aftermath of the Second Punic War 2.1 Hannibal in Iberia 2.2 Hasdrubal in Italy 2.3 Hanno and Mago in Sicily 2.4 Carthaginian Revolution 3 The Egyptian War Hannibal, after receiving siege weapons from Carthage, lays siege to Rome. Hannibal marched on the city in 218 BCE, lay siege to it, and took it. Yet a different picture sometimes emerges. Although Hannibal is easily one of the most famous generals of antiquity, he remains a figure of some mystery. [19] Silius suggests a Greek origin for Imilce, but Gilbert Charles-Picard argued for a Punic heritage based on an etymology from the Semitic root m-l-k ('chief, the 'king'). Hannibal's commander of the cavalry, Maharbal, encouraged Hannibal to attack anyway, confident they could win the war at this point when the Roman army was in disarray and the people in a panic. [88], According to Livy, the land occupied by Hannibal's army outside Rome in 211 BC was sold at the very time of its occupation and for the same price. He died the same year as Hannibal at the age of 53. [70] Hannibal also went on to defeat Eumenes in two other battles on land. At the court of King Prusias of Bithynia in 183 BCE, with Rome still in pursuit, Hannibal chose to end his life rather than be taken by his enemies. Hannibal spent time learning about his enemy, their strengths & weaknesses, & knew that Varro was over-confident of success. [111], Carthaginian general and statesman (247–183/181 BC), A marble bust, reputedly of Hannibal, originally found at the ancient city-state of, Conclusion of the Second Punic War (203–201 BC), Brown, John Pairman. [5] It is equivalent to the Hebrew name Haniel. Hasdrubal … According to some, Libyssa was sited at Gebze (between Bursa and Üskudar), but W. M. Leake,[78] identifying Gebze with ancient Dakibyza, placed it further west. Varro was in command on the first day, a man of reckless and hubristic nature (according to Livy) and determined to defeat Hannibal. Prior to the commencement of the said war, Hannibal took an oath to his father and the other officers that he would renew the war against Rome at the right time. to express their fear or anxiety. The commercial interests of the Carthaginian oligarchy dictated the reinforcement and supply of Iberia rather than Hannibal throughout the campaign. See more ideas about hannibal barca, punic wars, hannibal. License. In 203 BC, Hannibal was recalled from Italy by the war party in Carthage. A freelance writer and former part-time Professor of Philosophy at Marist College, New York, Joshua J. Soon the Romans became aware of an alliance between Carthage and the Celts of the Po Valley in Northern Italy. [71], At this stage, the Romans intervened and threatened Bithynia into giving up Hannibal. [104][105] Norman Schwarzkopf Jr., the commander of the Coalition of the Gulf War of 1990-1991, claimed, "The technology of war may change, the sophistication of weapons certainly changes. He had no experience in facing Scipio, however, and only knew him as the young general who had somehow managed to defeat Hasdrubal in Spain. However, only a few of the Italian city-states that he had expected to gain as allies defected to him. "[2][14] According to the tradition, Hannibal's oath took place in the town of Peñíscola, today part of the Valencian Community, Spain. There Hannibal destroyed Flaminius' army in the waters or on the adjoining slopes, killing Flaminius as well (see Battle of Lake Trasimene). The Carthaginians did not use hereditary surnames, but typically were distinguished from others bearing the same name using patronymics or epithets. But this gain was not without loss, as Sempronius avoided Hannibal's watchfulness, slipped around his flank, and joined his colleague in his camp near the Trebia River near Placentia. (24). This two-pronged attack caused the Carthaginian formation to collapse. By the time they reached the other side, 17 days later, the army had been reduced to 26,000 men in total and a few elephants. In Rome, Scipio was also dealing with problems posed by his own senate as they accused him of sympathizing with Hannibal by pardoning and releasing him, accepting bribes, and misappropiating funds. His brother's head had been cut off, carried across Italy, and tossed over the palisade of Hannibal's camp as a cold message of the iron-clad will of the Roman Republic. Hannibal's profile appears on the Tunisian five dinar bill issued on 8 November 1993, as well as on another new bill put into circulation on 20 March 2013. 1, pp. This is done through a mixture of lecture style episodes as well as more relaxed Let's Talk epis… In Hannibal’s War, J. F. Lazenby provides the first scholarly account in English since 1886 solely devoted to the Second Punic War, which some have called the first "world war" for mastery of the Mediterranean world. He then captured Clastidium, from which he drew large amounts of supplies for his men. [44] The victory was minor, but it encouraged the Gauls and Ligurians to join the Carthaginian cause. These wars were fought between the cities of Carthage in North Africa and Rome in northern Italy for supremacy in the Mediterranean region and the second war resulted directly from the first. Hannibal, a sworn enemy of all things Roman, declared war against them and this was the start of the Second Punic War (218–201 BC). Hannibal, discovering that the castle where he was living was surrounded by Roman soldiers and he could not escape, took poison. "Hannibal." Hannibal decided to bring the fight to the Romans and invade northern Italy in 218 BCE by crossing the mountain range of the Alps. "[48] At the same time, Hannibal tried to break the allegiance of Rome's allies by proving that Flaminius was powerless to protect them. The alpine invasion of Italy was a military operation that would shake the Mediterranean World of 218 BC with repercussions for more than two decades. argue that factors used by De Beer to support Col de la Traversette including "gauging ancient place names against modern, close scrutiny of times of flood in major rivers and distant viewing of the Po plains" taken together with "massive radiocarbon and microbiological and parasitical evidence" from the alluvial sediments either side of the pass furnish "supporting evidence, proof if you will" that Hannibal's invasion went that way. (39). Fabius closely followed Hannibal's path of destruction, yet still refused to let himself be drawn out of the defensive. The flow of defections to the Carthaginian side slowed and then stopped. [96] Nonetheless, Polybius did recognize that the reputation for cruelty the Romans attached to Hannibal might in reality have been due to mistaking him for one of his officers, Hannibal Monomachus.[97]. Scipio retreated across the Trebia to camp at Placentia with his army mostly intact.[44]. The Celts were amassing forces to invade farther south in Italy, presumably with Carthaginian backing. Yves Lacoste et Camille Lacoste-Dujardin [sous la dir. He was the son of Hamilcar Barca (ca. Archaeometry, v. 52, no. by The Department of History, United States Military Academy (GNU FDL). According to the historian Philip Matyszak, \"There is much we do not know about this man, though he was one of the greatest generals in antiquity. [71] Prusias agreed, but the general was determined not to fall into his enemy's hands. Hannibal attempted to lift the siege with an assault on the Roman siege lines but failed. The man who for fifteen years could hold his ground in a hostile country against several powerful armies and a succession of able generals must have been a commander and a tactician of supreme capacity. He first took the city Carthago Nova and moved on from there to other victories. The Romans then sent the general Quintus Fabius Maximus (l. c. 280-203 BCE) against Hannibal who employed a new tactic of wearing Hannibal down by keeping him constantly on the move and off balance. Fagan, Garret G. "The History of Ancient Rome". When Hannibal's successes had brought about the death of two Roman consuls, he vainly searched for the body of Gaius Flaminius on the shores of Lake Trasimene, held ceremonial rituals in recognition of Lucius Aemilius Paullus, and sent Marcellus' ashes back to his family in Rome. By capturing Cannae, Hannibal had placed himself between the Romans and their crucial sources of supply. Web. Scipio eventually defeated Hannibal at the Battle of Zama, having previously driven Hannibal's brother Hasdrubal out of the Iberian Peninsula. Hannibal quartered his troops for the winter with the Gauls, whose support for him had abated. Hannibal and Second Punic War General The Second Punic War broke out in B.C. His idealized image is reflected in the analysis by the founder of psychoanalysis of his "dreams of Rome" in The Interpretation of Dreams. Philip, who attempted to exploit Rome's preoccupation in Italy to conquer Illyria, now found himself under attack from several sides at once and was quickly subdued by Rome and her Greek allies. Hannibal became a legend in his own lifetime and, years after his death, Roman mothers would continue to frighten their unwilling children to bed with the phrase "Hannibal ad Porto" (Hannibal is at the door). In the meantime, the Romans hoped to gain success through sheer strength and weight of numbers, and they raised a new army of unprecedented size, estimated by some to be as large as 100,000 men, but more likely around 50–80,000.[52]. 01 Dec 2020. Antiochus, of course, knew of Hannibal's reputation and did not want to risk placing so powerful and popular a man in control of his armies and so kept him at court until necessity drove him to appoint Hannibal admiral of the navy in a war against Rhodes, one of Rome's allies. Hannibal is generally regarded[by whom?] Hannibal's well-planned strategies allowed him to conquer several Italian cities allied to Rome. It involved the mobilization of between 60,000 and 100,000 troops and the training of a war-elephant corps, all of which had to be provisioned along the way. No such brutality stains his name as that perpetrated by Gaius Claudius Nero on the vanquished Hasdrubal. [34] Biostratigraphic archaeological data has reinforced the case for Col de la Traversette; analysis of peat bogs near watercourses on both sides of the pass's summit showed that the ground was heavily disturbed "by thousands, perhaps tens of thousands, of animals and humans" and that the soil bore traces of unique levels of Clostridia bacteria associated with the digestive tract of horses and mules. If Polybius is correct in his figure for the number of troops that he commanded after the crossing of the Rhône, this would suggest that he had lost almost half of his force. [67] According to Strabo and Plutarch, Hannibal also received hospitality at the Armenian royal court of Artaxias I. Another opportunity presented itself soon after, a Roman army of 18,000 men being destroyed by Hannibal at the first battle of Herdonia with 16,000 Roman dead, freeing Apulia from the Romans for the year. "Any man who thinks he is the reincarnation of Hannibal or some such isn't quite possessed of all his buttons", quoted by. Cite This Work Hannibal was still only 46 at the conclusion of the Second Punic War in 201 BC and soon showed that he could be a statesman as well as a soldier. During the war there are no reports of revolutions among the Roman citizens, no factions within the Senate desiring peace, no pro-Carthaginian Roman turncoats, no coups. Israel and Hellas: Sacred institutions with Roman counterparts. In March 212 BC, Hannibal captured Tarentum in a surprise attack but he failed to obtain control of its harbour. [29] Additionally, he would have to contend with opposition from the Gauls, whose territory he passed through. He enacted political and financial reforms to enable the payment of the war indemnity imposed by Rome; however, those reforms were unpopular with members of the Carthaginian aristocracy and in Rome, and he fled into voluntary exile. The Punic Wars were not just a battle of two significant powers, but … [79], Appian wrote of a prophecy about Hannibal's death, which stated that "Libyssan earth shall cover Hannibal's remains." The Romans used the attritional strategy that Fabius had taught them, and which, they finally realized, was the only feasible means of defeating Hannibal. After the deaths of Hannibal and Scipio, Carthage continued to cause problems for Rome which eventually resulted in the Third Punic War (149-146 BCE) in which Carthage was destroyed. He accompanied his father to Spain and learned to fight, track and, most importantly, out-think an opponent. Polybius claims that Hannibal's men marched for four days and three nights "through a land that was under water", suffering terribly from fatigue and enforced want of sleep. It is believed that his refusal to bring the war to Rome itself was due to a lack of commitment from Carthage of men, money, and material â€” principally siege equipment. He was never able to bring about another grand decisive victory that could produce a lasting strategic change. Instead, he had to content himself with subduing the fortresses that still held out against him, and the only other notable event of 216 BC was the defection of certain Italian territories, including Capua, the second largest city of Italy, which Hannibal made his new base. As the Romans moved off towards the woods, Hannibal's army occupied the pass, and then made their way through the pass unopposed. Hannibal assumed command of the troops following his father's death and led them victoriously through a number of engagements until he stood almost at the gates of Rome; at which point he was stopped, not by the Romans, but through a lack of resources to take the city. Ancient History Encyclopedia. [108], Hannibal covers most of North Africa with olive groves thanks to the work of his soldiers, whose rest he considers prejudicial to the State and their generals.[109]. [12], After Carthage's defeat in the First Punic War, Hamilcar set out to improve his family's and Carthage's fortunes. Other sources report that Hannibal told his father, "I swear so soon as age will permit...I will use fire and steel to arrest the destiny of Rome. The Romans even built statues of the Carthaginian in the very streets of Rome to advertise their defeat of such a worthy adversary. According to Polybius 23, 13, p. 423: It is a remarkable and very cogent proof of Hannibal's having been by nature a real leader and far superior to anyone else in statesmanship, that though he spent seventeen years in the field, passed through so many barbarous countries, and employed to aid him in desperate and extraordinary enterprises numbers of men of different nations and languages, no one ever dreamt of conspiring against him, nor was he ever deserted by those who had once joined him or submitted to him.