Sepia pharaonis (pharaoh cuttlefish) is a large cuttlefish species, growing to 80 cm in mantle length. *Rerun for 50 million generations. Numbers above branches are clade posterior probability (BPP) estimates; numbers below branches are MPBS values. Though molecular genetic data are scarce for many invertebrate fisheries in part due to the small, local scale of many such fisheries (Thorpe, Sole-Cava & Watts, 2000), several cephalopods are targets of large-scale fisheries, and population genetic studies have been published for a number of these (e.g. Support values associated with branches are as described for Figure 2. Maturation, fecundity and seasonality of reproduction of two commercially valuable cuttlefish, The preservation of the shells of Sepia in the middle Miocene of Malta, Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, Molecular and morphological analyses of the cuttlefish, A synopsis of Sepiidae outside Australian waters (Cephalopoda: Sepioidea), A synopsis of Sepiidae in Australian waters (Cephalopoda: Sepioidea), Phylogenetic systematics and biogeography of hummingbirds: Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses of partitioned data and selection of an appropriate partitioning strategy, MacClade: analysis of phylogeny and character evolution, Version 4.08, Sunderland, Massachusetts, USA, Cryptic failure of partitioned Bayesian phylogenetic analyses: lost in the land of long trees, Performance-based selection of likelihood models for phylogeny estimation, First multi-generation culture of the tropical cuttlefish, Enlightenment of old ideas from new investigations: more questions regarding the evolution of bacteriogenic light organs in squids, Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of combined data, Temporal congruence and cladistic analysis of biogeography and cospeciation, Clocks, clades and cospeciation: comparing rates of evolution and timing of cospeciation events in host-parasite assemblages, Testing hypotheses of population structuring in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea using the common cuttlefish, Selecting the best-fit model of nucleotide substitution, Model selection and model averaging in phylogenetics: advantages of Akaike information criterion and Bayesian approaches over likelihood ratio tests, Evolutionary disequilibrium among Indo-Pacific corals, Generation times and the Quaternary evolution of reef-building corals, Cephalopods of the world. They usually … Sepia pharaonis. The cuttlefish's flat body allows it to live and hover near the ocean bottom where it finds its favorite food. Volume 1. (2005) depict the distribution of this species as including the coast of Sri Lanka and the southwest coast of India, but this appears to be an error (A. Reid, personal communication). A rate multiplier was used for all partitioned analyses (the rate multiplier associates substitution rates for different partitions with a Dirichlet prior to allow different rates across partitions). Sepia pharaonis shows considerable morphological and behavioural variation across its range, leading Norman (2000) to suggest that S. pharaonis s. l. consists of three forms: S. pharaonis s. s. (Red Sea to the Gulf of Oman, including the Persian Gulf), Sepia pharaonis II (western Pacific and northern Australia) and S. pharaonis III (Maldives to the Andaman Sea coast of Thailand). Widespread Mediterranean, Indo-West Pacific A fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and a fragment of the rhodopsin gene were amplified using universal metazoan COI PCR primers (Folmer et al., 1994) and cephalopod-specific rhodopsin PCR primers (Strugnell et al., 2005), and HotStar Master Mix (QIAGEN) following manufacturer's protocols (half-reactions). Previous morphological and genetic work (the latter based on the 16S rRNA mitochondrial gene) suggested that S. pharaonis is a species complex, but relationships within the complex remained unresolved. At present, we have no divergence time information for clades within the S. pharaonis complex. The status of S. pharaonis is further complicated by the recent description of a new species, S. ramaniNeethiselvan, 2001 that appears to be closely related to S. pharaonis. Customise filters (scroll to see full list) Taxon. The three-gene phylogeny is shown in Figure 3. Depth - 0-130m (2007) and using equations listed in Posada & Buckley (2004). For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. However, two of the four specimens collected in the Gulf of Oman (N Gulf of Oman 3* and N Gulf of Oman 5) showed discordance between clade membership and collection locality. It is commonly hunted in the Philippines, India, and Persia for food. Our analyses suggest that S. ramani is part of the S. pharaonis species complex, but that S. ramani 22 may represent a distinct subclade within the complex. For the protein-coding gene datasets, the data were either not partitioned or partitioned by codon position (with a separate substitution model for each codon position and model parameters estimated separately for each partition). Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (*and Other Methods), Phylogenetic relationships among major species of Japanese coleoid cephalopods (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) using three mitochondrial DNA sequences, Exploited marine invertebrates: genetics and fisheries, Morphology and late quaternary sedimentation in the Gulf of Oman Basin, Patterns of speciation and dispersal along continental coastlines and island arcs in the Indo-West Pacific turbinid gastropod genus, The marine Indo-West Pacific break: contrasting the resolving power of mitochondrial and nuclear genes, Phylogeny of selected Sepiidae (Mollusca, Cephalopoda) on 12S, 16S, and COI sequences, with comments on the taxonomic reliability of several morphological characters, © The Author 2010. Surprisingly, it does not group with the central Indian S. pharaonis subclade; it groups with the northeastern Australia subclade, although it is quite distinct even from the latter subclade. Due to the size and composition of the dataset, analyses of each MP bootstrap pseudoreplicate resulted in thousands of equally parsimonious trees. genetically, the range of this form extends north and west of the Maldives along the Indian coast). Genus: Sepia . Like all cuttlefish, they are incredibly intelligent and Pharaoh Cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis) - Marine Life - Liveaboard Diving Relationships among these clades are somewhat poorly resolved, although there is some support for a clade comprising the Iranian clade, the western Pacific clade and the central Indian Ocean clade (BPP = 0.74, MPBS = 94%). The Gulf of Oman ranges from 60 km (at the Strait of Hormuz) to 370 km wide (from Ras Al Hadd, Oman to Gwadar Bay, Pakistan) and the Gulf of Oman basin is about 3,400 m deep (Uchupi, Swift & Ross, 2002). In light of this, we believe that specimens from the type localities would probably be members of our western Indian Ocean subclade. Finally, it must be noted that representatives of only 14 sepiid species were used as outgroups in this study. We have also added sequence data from two specimens of Sepia ramaniNeethiselvan, 2001, collected in southeastern India. Finally, Norman's S. pharaonis II appears to comprise at least two genetically distinct groups: our western Pacific subclade (comprising samples from Taiwan and the Gulf of Thailand) and our northeastern Australia subclade. ''Sepia pharaonis'' is likely a complex of at least three species, ''Sepia pharaonis I'', commonly located in the Red Sea … They are also able to shoot a cloud of black ink at predators when threatened. The prey is then pulled toward the animal's strong beak and crushed before consuming. Although our data do not allow us to determine the precise location of boundaries between phylogeographic units, it is clear that the regions where different clades are found differ substantially in size. As shown by Anderson et al. A topological similarity criterion (the average standard deviation in partition frequency values across independent runs) was used to automatically assess convergence of the runs. Preliminary analyses suggested that the default temperature (T = 0.2) resulted in very few state swaps between chains, and some analyses were succumbing to the ‘long tree’ problem, in which estimated branch lengths were unreasonably long, as described by Marshall (2010) and Brown et al. Partitioning by gene and codon resulted in four data partitions for the combined mtDNA dataset (a 16S rRNA partition and a partition for each COI codon position) and six for the three-gene dataset (16S rRNA, COI positions 1, 2 and 3, rhodopsin positions 1 + 2 and rhodopsin position 3; rhodopsin first and second codon positions were pooled due to low levels of variation). There are hints that this complex may consist of more than three species; for example, hectocotylus morphology differs between males collected in Japan and Australia (Reid et al., 2005). Range: Indo-West Pacific Ocean: Widspread. Video by Japan Ethological Society & Springer Japan. Sometimes the boys of these cephalopods will fight each other over a girl they like, but they won't touch each other, they just flash different patterns of colors. Attempts to untangle this putative species complex using molecular genetic data have been limited to a study by Anderson et al. There is generally little evidence of migration of cuttlefish between geographic regions in our data. Rhodopsin sequences for E. scolopes, M. tullbergi and S. officinalis are from different individuals than the mitochondrial sequences. COI and rhodopsin sequences obtained in this study were combined with all available sepiid 16S rRNA, COI and rhodopsin sequences in GenBank ( as of 17 February 2009. The focus on species or species groups that span the boundary between the Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean (the ‘marine Wallace's Line’; Barber et al., 2000) is understandable, given the importance of this region in both marine and continental biogeography, but it does not provide much insight into Indian Ocean phylogeography. For both the combined mtDNA dataset and the three-gene dataset, the AICc and BIC values were lowest for the ‘by gene and codon position’ partitioning scheme, indicating that this was the best-fitting partitioning scheme of those evaluated for these data (Table 3). Want to share your pictures? There appear to be consistent reproductive differences among these three forms. Furthermore, phylogeographic studies of Indian Ocean marine fauna encompass taxa of differing ages, which may have been impacted by different vicariant events or paleooceanographic phenomena (Page, 1990, 1991). (2007), however, in recovering moderate support for monophyly of the Sepia pharaonis complex, including a previously unsampled species (S. ramani), and in clarifying relationships among these five clades. In contrast to analyses of the combined mtDNA data alone, the three-gene dataset gives some support for monophyly of the S. pharaonis complex (BPP = 0.70, MPBS = 81%) and a close relationship among the Iranian clade, the western Pacific clade and the central Indian Ocean clade (BPP = 0.96, MPBS = 93%). Photography By: Ramin Ketabi Editor:Shahla Jamili (IFSRI) The. Males are larger than females, the maximum recorded size for males is 80 cm and. The phylogeny reveals five strongly supported subclades within S. pharaonis: a western Indian Ocean clade (Red Sea, Gulf of Aden and the northeast coast of Oman), a northeastern Australia clade (with a representative of ‘S. πία, sēpía, cuttlefish. Chambered nautiluses and sepioids (Nautilidae, Sepiidae, Sepiolidae, Sepiadariidae, Idiosepiidae and Spirulidae. in 80–100% EtOH as part of an earlier study (Anderson et al., 2007). The Bayesian consensus phylogram does not clearly support monophyly of the S. pharaonis complex; sequences from Metasepia tullbergi and S. lycidas are part of a polytomy that includes all S. pharaonis specimens sampled in this study, although one resolution of this polytomy would have the S. lycidas/M. For the three-gene dataset, GenBank data for COI, 16S rRNA and rhodopsin were only available for three outgroup species (two sepiids – Sepia officinalis and Metasepia tullbergi – and one sepiolid, Euprymna scolopes), so two analyses were performed – one in which only these three taxa were used as outgroups and one in which all sepiid and sepiolid taxa used in the combined mtDNA data analyses were used as outgroups. While mating, S. pharaonis s. s. males show zebra lines on the third arm pair, while S. pharaonis II males have broken lines and S. pharaonis III males have spots (Norman, 2000). Tweet; Description: This is the moment of the hatching of a Pharaoh Cuttlefish. Pharaoh Cuttlefish - New hatchling. Copyright © 2020 the coasts of south Asia, the Arabian Peninsula and northeastern Africa). (2007), five strongly supported geographically delimited clades are evident on both the mtDNA and three-gene phylogenies. A pharaoh cuttlefish pretends to be a hermit crab, raising its front legs to look like eyestalks and appearing to walk on the bottom of the tank. These likelihood scores were used to select a best-fitting substitution model using ‘MrDT-ModSel’, a modification of DT-ModSel (Minin et al., 2003) developed by F.E.A. Comparisons with other studies are somewhat compromised by the fact that although numerous phylogeographic studies of Indian Ocean species have been published, the Malay Archipelago, South Africa and Australia have received substantially more attention than the northern Indian Ocean (i.e. Pharaoh cuttlefish are cephalopods related to cuttlefish, squid, octopus and chambered nautilus. (2004). The initial tree topology does not seem to influence model selection, as long as the tree used is not a random topology (Posada & Crandall, 2001); neighbour joining was used only because it is a fast method to generate a ‘better-than-random’ tree. Prices and download plans . In contrast, ‘N Gulf of Oman 5’ (the specimen placed in the western Indian Ocean clade in the rhodopsin-only phylogeny) was recovered as a member of the Iranian clade in the three-gene phylogeny. However, currents might facilitate rare dispersal events across the Gulf of Oman at certain times of the year. Furthermore, the cuttlebone of S. pharaonis has a distinctive cuplike extension covering the striated zone of the posterior inner cone (Khromov et al., 1998; Norman, 2000), which may allow fossil members of the S. pharaonis complex to be identified. Cuttlefish possess the ability to swim in different manners, usually gently rippling their side fins. 5 kg, and for females 50 cm and 2 kg in … Login on the desktop to upload your own pictures! Map showing the type localities for Sepia pharaonis (*) and sampling localities, modified from Anderson et al. Data were collected from aquacultured animals using egg masses sampled from around the island and hatched in aquaria during 2010, 2011, … The 68 taxa three-gene analysis was only run under the gene and codon partitioning scheme, and included the full set of taxa used in the combined mtDNA analyses. to compare only substitution models that are available in MrBayes v. 3.1.1 (Perl script available upon request to F.E.A.). When the baby cuttlefish are fully developed, they can be seen 'swimming' inside the egg and already able to change colors. When raised in the laboratory, the maximum recorded size for males is 16.2 cm, and for females 15.5 cm. This study expands on the results of Anderson et al. This time, when 33 cuttlefish … Adcock et al., 1999; Shaw, Pierce & Boyle, 1999; Kassahn et al., 2003; Shaw et al., 2004; Perez-Losada et al., 2007). Phylogenies recovered in analyses of the COI and rhodopsin datasets were generally topologically concordant with one another and with phylogenies recovered from the combined analyses, so only the results of the analyses of the two dataset combinations (mtDNA and all three genes) will be discussed in detail and shown here. Reid et al. Ten such analyses were run, with bootstrap support values for each node averaged across all 10 runs. We thank Alonso Córdoba, Stephanie Clutts, Mike Venarsky and Adria Pilsits for assistance with DNA extraction, PCR and sequencing and Associate Editor Suzanne Williams and two anonymous reviewers for their very helpful comments and suggestions. DNA extraction, PCR product purification, automated DNA sequencing and sequence editing were as described in Anderson et al. However when in danger, the cuttlefish sucks water into their body cavity and expels it through a funnel like extension on the underside of the body, causing a backward propulsion enabling the cuttlefish to escape from predators. Our central Indian Ocean subclade may be Norman's S. pharaonis III, although we found that S. pharaonis individuals collected along the west coast of India from as far north and west as Veraval are also members of this clade (i.e. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. Contents. Sequences for S. madokai have been removed from GenBank subsequent to the completion of the analyses described in this paper. One specimen that we sequenced (S. ramani 23) is a member of the central Indian Ocean subclade of S. pharaonis (Figs 2, 3). Sepia pharaonis Ehrenberg, 1831 Pharaoh Cuttlefish. Multiple data partitioning schemes were tested for Bayesian analyses of the separate and combined datasets. See Google Images, Also known as Cephalopod, Large Striped Cuttlefish. 49, Paris, France, DNA primers for amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I from diverse metazoan invertebrates, Molecular Marine Biology and Biotechnology. When these different estimates of sample size caused MrDT-ModSel to select different models for a given data partition, we chose the model with fewer parameters. Unfortunately, we lack the samples from the southern or eastern Persian Gulf that would allow us to test this possibility. Recovery of cuttlebones attributable to the S. pharaonis complex might allow estimation of the age of the complex and divergence times within the complex, allowing phylogeographic comparisons of S. pharaonis with other neritic species in the Indian Ocean. They have eight short arms and two long tentacles that are usually tucked neatly into their arms. Search results from the FishSource database for all stocks and fisheries for this species are available after dismissing this dialog. (2005), who noted that hectocotylus morphology differs between S. pharaonis specimens from Japan (presumably members of our western Pacific subclade, though it is possible that Japan is home to yet another S. pharaonis subclade) and Australia. These calculations required estimation of model likelihoods. Length - 33cm Upload them now! Atlas of Living Australia. Our results show that Sepia ‘pharaonis’ is a complex of at least five subclades (and perhaps six, depending on the status of S. ramani). Found in shallow waters over sand and seagrass beds of coral and rocky reefs. They feed on crustaceans and small fish. In the present study, we described their reproductive behavior and characterized their embryonic development. 3), and the distinction between this subclade and all other subclades in the complex is the only distinction that is supported by the rhodopsin sequence data. Both specimens of S. ramani are members of the S. pharaonis complex, but their mtDNA haplotypes are not closely related – one is a member of the central Indian Ocean clade, while the other is rather distantly related to the northeastern Australia clade. Phylogenetic analyses of a dataset comprising all three-gene regions revealed a monophyletic S. pharaonis complex consisting of a western Indian Ocean clade, a northeastern Australia clade, a Persian Gulf/Arabian Sea (‘Iranian’) clade, a western Pacific clade and a central Indian Ocean clade. Sepia. Sepia pharaonis is a neritic demersal species so direct dispersal across the Gulf of Oman seems unlikely. Cuttlefishes. Estimated Bayesian posterior probabilities (BPPs) of clades on inferred trees were interpreted as measures of support. Appropriate partitioning schemes for the two multigene datasets were chosen using the AICc (a second-order correction of the Akaike Information Criterion) and the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC), following McGuire et al. (2007) noted, the type localities of S. pharaonis are both in the Red Sea (near El-Tor in the Sinai in the northern Red Sea and near Massawa in Eritrea along the west coast of the Red Sea). 3), and members of the western Indian Ocean subclade bear distinctly different rhodopsin sequences than nearly all other S. pharaonis sampled in our study. Furthermore, the semelparous annual life cycle of many cephalopods (probably including S. pharaonis; Gabr et al., 1998, but see Aoyama & Nguyen, 1989) makes their stocks highly vulnerable to overexploitation (Thorpe et al., 2000). In addition, S. pharaonis s. s. spawns between August and October, while S. pharaonis II (in Hong Kong) spawns from March through May and S. pharaonis in India spawns all year round (Norman, 2000). The pharaoh cuttlefish, Sepia pharaonis (Ehrenberg 1831 1999), is distributed in tropical coastal waters in the Indo-Pacific region (Norman and Reid 2000; Nabhitabhata and Nilaphat 1999). Given that there are over 100 described species within Sepiidae (Khromov et al., 1998; Lu, 1998), our inference of monophyly for the S. pharaonis complex must be considered provisional pending sampling of additional sepiid species. The broad coastal distribution of this species across biogeographic zones, coupled with the high incidence of cryptic speciation in commercially fished marine invertebrates (including some cephalopods; Yeatman & Benzie, 1994), suggests the presence of multiple stocks. Tissue samples were collected from Sepia pharaonis individuals from throughout the range of the species (Table 1, Fig. GenBank accession numbers for all outgroup taxa. Cephalopod researcher Dr. James Wood sums it up well; “Octopuses, squids, cuttlefish and the chambered nautilus belong to class Cephalopoda, which means ‘head foot”. We suggest that ‘S. Ref: The pharaoh cuttlefish, Sepia pharaonis Ehrenberg, 1831, is a commercially fished species found from Japan to East Africa. Sepia Temporal range: Miocene – Recent PreꞒ Ꞓ O S D C P T J K Pg N … Upload image a single substitution model was used for the dataset). Frank E. Anderson, Ryan Engelke, Kelsey Jarrett, Tooraj Valinassab, Kolliyil S. Mohamed, Pillaru K. Asokan, Parayapanal U. Zacharia, Praulai Nootmorn, Cherdchinda Chotiyaputta, Malcolm Dunning, Phylogeny of the Sepia pharaonis species complex (Cephalopoda: Sepiida) based on analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data, Journal of Molluscan Studies, Volume 77, Issue 1, February 2011, Pages 65–75, Abbreviation: ∼, approximate values denoting collections from several sites in close proximity to one another. File:Partes de la sepia.ogv. Male and female adults usually die shortly after spawning and brooding, respectively. Sepia pharaonis is a commercially harvested species, and it is a significant component of cephalopod fisheries throughout its range ( Nesis, 1987 ; … Likelihoods of the data for each partition were calculated using PAUP* under all standard nucleotide substitution models available in MrBayes v. 3.1.1. They feed by catching their prey by two powerful tentacles which shoot out from beneath the creatures eyes. Conversely, phylogenetic patterns may be concordant across taxa, but these similarities could be due to pseudocongruence, in which similar phylogenetic patterns arise among two or more taxa of different ages that were affected by different vicariant events (Cunningham & Collins, 1994; Donoghue & Moore, 2003). Sepia pharaonis. Fifty per cent majority-rule consensus Bayesian phylogram for the combined three-gene (COI + 16S rRNA + rhodopsin) dataset for the Sepia pharaonis complex. Pharaoh Cuttlefish: This is a large species of cuttlefish that inhabits the Pacific region between Japan and Australia and as far west as the Red Sea. Pharaoh Cuttlefish We just learned about the Humboldt Squid. The Eggs are like table tennis balls, around 1-inch in diameter. Genetic divergence between Indian and Pacific populations of marine species has been attributed to reductions in gene flow during repeated periods of glaciation over the last 140,000 years, which resulted in lower sea levels, reduced transfer of warm surface water between the Indian and Pacific Ocean basins and increased cold-water upwelling as recently as 18,000 years ago (Potts, 1983, 1984; Fleminger, 1986; Springer & Williams, 1990; Williams et al., 2002). ; N, Nishiguchi, Lopez & Von Boetzky, 2004; S, Strugnell et al., 2005; T, Takumiya et al., 2005; Y ,Yoshida, Tsuneki & Furuya, 2006; Zheng, X.D., Wang, R.C., Xiao, S. and Chen, B. Welcome to FishSource, an online information resource about the status of fish stocks and fisheries. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. Pharaoh Cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis) is also known as the Large Striped Cuttlefish and Seiche Pharaon. To avoid these problems, analyses were performed with the temperature set to 0.05 (which resulted in state-swap frequencies of 60–70%) and the branch-length prior mean was reduced to 0.02 using the command ‘brlens = unconstrained:Exp[50.0]’, following the recommendations of McGuire et al. Customise filters × Customise filters (scroll to see full list) (scroll to see full list) Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science, MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models, The monsoon circulation of the Indian Ocean. Login on the desktop to upload your own pictures! Sepia ramani is a member of the S. pharaonis species complex, though one of our S. ramani samples may represent an additional, previously unsampled subclade within the complex. However, the main spawning season for S. pharaonis in this region is November and December, between the monsoons (Reid et al., 2005) and after the Ras Al Hadd jet has weakened. Though less work has been done on western Indian Ocean marine populations, some studies have found evidence of a phylogeographic break between the eastern and western Indian Ocean (Ridgway & Sampayo, 2005). Population genetic status of the western Indian Ocean: what do we know? During the southwestern (summer) monsoon, the Ras Al Hadd jet (a continuation of the Somali and Oman Coastal Currents that flows eastward from the eastern tip of Oman; Schott & McCreary, 2001) and the cyclonic eddy it produces in the Gulf of Oman could promote occasional dispersal of S. pharaonis juveniles across the Gulf. Our only specimens from the Persian Gulf are members of the Iranian subclade, but we do not know if members of the western Indian Ocean subclade are also found in the Persian Gulf, so we cannot discern whether the boundary between these two subclades is in the Gulf of Oman or the Persian Gulf (or both). Cuttlefish gather in their hundreds of thousands to spawn. All hope is not lost, however, because sepiids possess a calcified structure that would seemingly be amenable to fossilization – the cuttlebone. The best (lowest) AICc and BIC scores are in bold text. For the combined mtDNA dataset, all sepiids for which both COI and 16S rRNA sequences were available in GenBank were included as outgroups to provide as robust a test as possible for S. pharaonis monophyly (Table 2). Furthermore, within the Indian Ocean, archipelagos with extensive reef systems such as Seychelles, Mauritius and the Maldives also seem to have been sampled more frequently than the continental shelves of south Asia and northeastern Africa. Furthermore, additional specimens from as-yet-unsampled parts of the range of the S. pharaonis complex must be evaluated, as there may be additional subclades (or species) waiting to be discovered; regions of particular interest are Madagascar, the Philippines, the Yellow Sea (Hwang Hai) and Indonesia. It was expertly cleaned in Vietnam, so it is all ready to use in recipes without further work, except to dismantle and cut as needed for your recipe. [Pharaoh Cuttlefish; Sepia pharaonis] The photo specimen to the the left was the same type of Cuttlefish pictured in the previous paragraph, but viewed from the bottom. This specimen could be misidentified, or it could be a hybrid (or backcross) between S. ramani and S. pharaonis that exhibits S. ramani morphology but carries a S. pharaonis mtDNA haplotype. Sepia (genus) - WikiMili, The Free Encycloped found during their scuba dive and snorkelling excursions. - Substitution model abbreviations are as follows: GGI = GTR = G = I, HG = HKY85 = G, HI = HKY85 = I, K = K2P, KG = K2P = G; see Anderson & Swofford (2004) for more information on model abbreviations and original citations for each model. The Pharaoh Cuttlefish is found in the Mediterranean, Indo-West Pacific region growing up to 33cm in length. Alignment of the COI and rhodopsin sequences was performed by eye in Se-Al v. 2.0a11 (Rambaut, 2002). The western Indian Ocean clade revealed by Anderson et al. Relationships among these clades remain somewhat poorly supported except for a clade comprising the Iranian clade, the western Pacific clade and the central Indian Ocean clade. N Gulf of Oman 3* grouped strongly with the western Indian Ocean subclade on all phylogenies, while N Gulf of Oman 5 grouped with the Iranian subclade (as expected) in the mtDNA and three-gene phylogenies (Figs 2, 3), but with the western Indian Ocean subclade on the rhodopsin phylogeny. FYI: Shown here only for identification only. πία, sēpía, cuttlefish. Recovery of a sister pair consisting of the Western Pacific clade and the Central Indian Ocean clade in the S. pharaonis complex, though weakly supported (BPP = 0.94, MPBS < 50%), is consistent with numerous other studies that have found similar sister species or population pairs, with one species (or population) in the Indian Ocean and the other in the Pacific Ocean (Williams et al., 2002 and citations therein; Reid et al., 2006). As Anderson et al. Also known as the Cephalopod. Despite this bias, there are several phylogeographic studies whose focal taxa are found in many of the same regions where S. pharaonis is found, and comparisons with these studies may be fruitful. Fifty per cent majority-rule consensus Bayesian phylogram (branch lengths equal to the estimated number of substitutions per site averaged across all postburn-in trees) for the combined COI + 16S rRNA dataset, depicting the position of Sepia pharaonis haplotypes within Sepiidae and rooted with sequences from two sepiolid taxa. The strong morphological similarities suggest a close relationship between S. pharaonis and S. ramani, but the nature of this relationship is unknown. Also included in this clade are the lesser-known cuttlefish (Sepioidea), the Ram's Horn Squid, which has an internal coiled shell and floats head down in the water, and an enigmatic deep water genus called the "vampire squid" (Vampyromorpha). When this value reached 0.01, the runs were terminated. The majority of coleoids are squid species, and most of these animals are torpedo … Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Malacological Society of London, all rights reserved, Assessing the systematics of Tylodinidae in the Mediterranean Sea and Eastern Atlantic Ocean: resurrecting, Environmental correlates of distribution across spatial scales in the intertidal gastropods, Feeding and digestion periodicity of Manila clam, Ontogenesis of the digestive gland through the planktotrophic stages of, High cryptic diversity in the kleptoparasitic genus, About the Malacological Society of London,, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, HM164519, HM164524, HM164525, HM164527, HM164536, HM164489, HM164491, HM164492, HM164532, HM164533, Copyright © 2020 The Malacological Society of London. The pharaoh cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis Ehrenberg, 1831 (Sepiidae) is a broadly distributed neritic demersal cephalopod species found from East Africa to southern Japan. Thermal cycling regimes were as follows: 94° (1 min) – 42° (1 min) – 68° (1:30), repeated for 35 cycles, with a 7-min terminal extension step at 72° (COI); 94° (1 min) – 42° (1 min) – 72° (1:30), repeated for 35 cycles, with a 7-min terminal extension step at 72° (rhodopsin). (2008) found that phylogeographic patterns can differ substantially between sympatric species, even when those species are congeneric and ecologically similar. Sepia pharaonis has also been proposed as a promising species for mariculture due to its high spawning success, rapid rate of growth, disease resistance and tolerance of crowding and handling (Minton et al., 2002; Barord, Keister & Lee, 2010). *Latitude and longitude not available, collected near Muscat, Oman. unpubl.). Sepia ramani is a species that is morphologically very similar to S. pharaonis, and there is some question regarding its status as a distinct species. We generated a total of 46 COI sequences and 43 rhodopsin sequences (Table 1). Investigations using metazoan 18S rDNA, Stock assessment of cuttlefish off the coast of the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Journal of Shimonoseki University of Fisheries. To facilitate the analysis, 100 bootstrap pseudoreplicates were analysed, with the maximum number of trees retained set to 10,000 (maxtrees = 10,000) and a heuristic search with the following parameters: 100 random-addition-sequence replicates (addseq = random nreps = 100), holding 10 trees at each step (hold = 10), retaining only 100 trees of length ≥1 per replicate (nchuck = 100, chuckscore = 1). From FishBase, you are looking for information on human uses of the species 'Sepia pharaonis'. Sperm … Not Suitable for Fish-Only Tank. (2007) and Marshall (2010). Only nodes with BPP > 0.90 and/or MPBS > 70% have values associated with them, and support values within geographically delimited clades are not shown. Anderson et al. To clarify these relationships, we have sequenced an additional mitochondrial gene region (cytochrome oxidase subunit I) and a nuclear gene region (rhodopsin) from over 50 specimens from throughout the range of S. pharaonis. Collection locality and GenBank accession data for all specimens of Sepia pharaonis complex. The pharaoh cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis) is a large cuttlefish species that may exceed 40 cm in mantle length and 5 kg in weight. Neethiselvan (2001) also noted that some morphometric characters (cuttlebone width, inner cone length and tentacular club length) could be useful for distinguishing between the species, but there is some overlap between the two species in all of these characters. Human food fish. (2007) found that S. pharaonis comprises five distinct clades: a western Indian Ocean clade (Gulf of Aden and Red Sea), a northeastern Australia clade, an Iranian clade (northern Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf), a central Indian Ocean clade (India and the Andaman Sea coast of Thailand) and a western Pacific clade. Created to help individuals around the world identify tropical fish The rhodopsin phylogeny was poorly resolved due to the low level of variation found in this gene region among the focal taxa (tree not shown), but a monophyletic S. pharaonis comprising two subclades was recovered – one weakly supported subclade [BPP = 0.903, maximum parsimony bootstrap support (MPBS) = 53%] included all specimens collected in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden plus one specimen (‘N Gulf of Oman 5’) collected from the Iranian coast of the Gulf of Oman, and a strongly supported subclade (BPP = 0.990, MPBS = 93%) comprising all other S. pharaonis and S. ramani individuals. Sequence data for all outgroups were downloaded from GenBank. In short, two of our subclades correspond well to the forms described by Norman (2000), but we found that his S. pharaonis II represents at least two genetically distinct groups, and we have also found evidence for a distinct Iranian subclade. AICc values shown were calculated using the number of variable characters; AICc values calculated using all characters were similar. Differences in phylogeographic patterns across studies of Indo-Pacific neritic taxa are not surprising, given the substantial differences in life history, ecology and behaviour among these taxa. One of the S. ramani specimens is nested within the central Indian Ocean clade, but the other is sister to the Australia clade. In light of this, we suggest that the binomen S. pharaonis be restricted to the western Indian Ocean subclade. FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Comparative phylogeography and species boundaries in. COI sequences from this study plus 16S rRNA sequences from Anderson et al., 2007) and two ‘three-gene analyses' (comprising all COI, 16S rRNA and rhodopsin sequences generated here and in Anderson et al., 2007). Both the combined mtDNA phylogeny and the three-gene phylogeny place a specimen denoted on the phylogenies as ‘N Gulf of Oman 3*’ (collected from the Iranian coast of the Gulf of Oman) within the western Indian Ocean clade with strong support. Though we did not obtain samples from the type localities, we did obtain samples from the Yemeni Red Sea coast (340 km east of Massawa) and found that these specimens were members of our western Indian Ocean subclade. It is possible that Pleistocene glaciations also played a role in the divergence between the central Indian Ocean and western Pacific clades of S. pharaonis, though the current lack of divergence time information for the S. pharaonis complex limits our ability to test hypotheses of causality. The tentacles are deployed to catch prey. Several phylogenetic analyses were performed for the COI and rhodopsin data individually and for three combinations of data – one consisting of the combined mtDNA data only (i.e. In this case, our samples seem to have come from at or near a boundary between two subclades, and we are detecting either migrants or individuals resulting from crosses or backcrosses between members of these two subclades (e.g. only one substitution model was used), partitioning by gene, or partitioning by gene and codon position. Such data could be particularly important for S. pharaonis. Also known as Cephalopod, Large Striped Cuttlefish, Leave a comment Have a photo you want identified? Maximum parsimony (MP) bootstrap and Bayesian analyses were performed for each dataset in PAUP* v. 4.0b11 (Swofford, 2002) and MrBayes v. 3.1.1 (Ronquist & Huelsenbeck, 2003). This subclade is sister to a clade comprising all other subclades in the complex (including S. ramani; Fig. The Pharaoh cuttlefish ranks high among the fish export list from Oman. In analyses of the partitioned datasets, all model parameters except topology and branch lengths were unlinked across partitions. The cuttlefish isn’t a fish at all – it is a cephalopod. N Gulf of Oman 5, whose mtDNA haplotype is Iranian but whose rhodopsin sequence appears to be from the western Indian Ocean). Mong-Fong Lee, Chun-Yen Lin, Chuan-Chin Chiao, and Chung-Cheng Lu (2016) The pharaoh cuttlefish, Sepia pharaonis, is one of the most important cephalopod fishery species in southeastern Asia. The number of parameters, run length (‘length’) in millions of generations, best-fitting models, and AICc and BIC values for different partitioning schemes for the combined mtDNA (16S rRNA + COI) and three-gene (16S rRNA + COI + rhodopsin) datasets. Flamboyant Cuttlefish: This species is well-named for the rather bright and exuberant pattern of colors on … The harmonic mean of likelihood values from the stationary phase of each analysis (calculated using the ‘sump’ command in MrBayes v. 3.1.2) was used as an estimate of the model likelihood, following Nylander et al. The postburn-in trees from all four runs were assumed to be independent samples from the posterior probability distribution, and thus were combined to produce a phylogram and a 50% majority-rule consensus tree. An outer shell once covered the cuttlefish's … (2007) and confirmed here corresponds quite well to Norman's S. pharaonis s. s., although we found evidence of a genetic break between the southern and northern Gulf of Oman (see below). 's (2007) dataset by (1) adding another mitochondrial gene region and a nuclear gene region in an effort to clarify relationships among subclades of S. pharaonis and test monophyly of the S. pharaonis complex, and (2) by expanding the taxon sample to include specimens of S. ramani. Males can only produce once and the females die shortly after laying their eggs. əl‚fish] (invertebrate zoology) An Old World decapod mollusk of the genus Sepia; shells are used to manufacture dentifrices and cosmetics. Parts of a sepia. The average longevity of the species is between 1-2 years. Crandall et al. Mating behavior: Males perform various displays to attract potential females for copulation. Sepia ramani could be a close relative of the S. pharaonis complex, it could be a genetically distinct subclade (or species) within that complex or it could represent aberrant specimens of S. pharaonis. Reid et al. Later, when the researchers were conducting more experiments on cuttlefish hunting, the behavior appeared again. 1) and shipped to the first author (F.E.A.) ramani’ weakly supported as sister to this clade), an Iranian clade (northeastern Persian Gulf and northern Gulf of Oman), a western Pacific clade and a broadly distributed central Indian Ocean clade (west and east coasts of India and the Andaman Sea coast of Thailand). Sepia pharaonis is a commercially harvested species, and it is a significant component of cephalopod fisheries throughout its range (Nesis, 1987; Reid, Jereb & Roper, 2005). pharaonis’ may consist of several species, but morphological work is needed to clarify species-level taxonomy within this complex. Sepia ramani is a neritic demersal southeastern Indian species that is morphologically very similar to S. pharaonis, and there has been some controversy regarding the status of S. ramani as a distinct species. Neethiselvan (2001) noted that S. ramani is difficult to distinguish from S. pharaonis, although he listed some characters that allow the two species to be identified: S. ramani has 5–6 enlarged club suckers, with 3–4 greatly enlarged, whereas S. pharaonis has 15–24 enlarged suckers, all of approximately equal size; and there are 14–16 transverse rows of normal suckers on the hectocotylus of S. ramani, but only 10–12 such rows in S. pharaonis. DNA markers indicate that distinct spawning cohorts and aggregations of Patagonian squid, Subtle population structuring within a highly vagile marine invertebrate, the veined squid, Widely distributed Pacific plate endemics and lowered sea-level, Molecular phylogeny of coleoid cephalopods (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) using a multigene approach; the effect of data partitioning on resolving phylogenies in a Bayesian framework, PAUP*. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of species known to date. The relationships among the S. pharaonis subclades are still not fully resolved, but some inferences can be made. The pharaoh cuttlefish is a large cuttlefish species, growing to 42 cm in mantle length and 5 kg in weight. Despite the commercial importance of S. pharaonis, very little has been published on the phylogeography or population genetics of this species, presumably due in part to its broad geographic distribution. McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Search for other works by this author on: Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Regional Centre, Bidia, Central Research Centre of CMFRI (Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute), South Beach Road, Tuticorin 628001, Tamil Nadu, Andaman Sea Fisheries Research and Development Center, 77 Tumbon Vichit, Maung District, Phuket 83000, Department of Marine and Coastal Resources, 92 Paholyothin 7, Bangkok 10400, Assessment and Monitoring, Fisheries Policy and Sustainability, Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, GPO Box 46, Brisbane, QLD 4001, Microsatellite analysis of genetic diversity in the squid Illex argentinus during a period of intensive fishing, Restricted gene flow and evolutionary divergence between geographically separated populations of the Antarctic octopus Pareledone turqueti, Should we be worried about long-branch attraction in real data sets? By contrast, the other S. ramani specimen collected from the same area (S. ramani 22) is genetically distinct from all other specimens collected from Indian waters. To our knowledge, no fossil cuttlebones attributable to S. pharaonis have been found. Scientific name Scientific name (unprocessed) Subspecies Species Genus Family Order Class Phylum Kingdom Scientific name (unprocessed) Subspecies Species Genus … For each dataset or partition, models were evaluated by using all sites or only variable sites as estimates of sample size (Posada & Buckley, 2004). Partition abbreviations are as follows: C, COI; R, rhodopsin; C1, COI position 1; C2, COI position 2; C3, COI position 3; R12, rhodopsin position 1 + position 2; R3, rhodopsin position 3. Only 16S rRNA sequences are available from the two specimens of S. pharaonis from Taiwan. Four Bayesian analyses, each consisting of one cold and three heated Metropolis-coupled Markov chains, were run simultaneously in MrBayes v. 3.1.1, with random starting trees and trees sampled every 1,000 generations. Members of the class Cephalopoda are gonochoric. Species: S. pharaonis. Colour changes to match surroundings. The taxonomic status of S. ramani (as well as usage of the binomen S. pharaonis itself) hinges on the taxonomic status of the five unnamed subclades, and this cannot be fully addressed without detailed morphological and morphometric work, preferably coupled with additional genetic data collection to provide a link with our study. The combined mtDNA phylogeny is shown in Figure 2. The deepest divergence within the S. pharaonis complex is between the western Indian Ocean clade and the rest of the complex. Size: 18 inches (45 cm) ... Genus: Sepia. (2007) based on partial mitochondrial 16S rRNA sequence data collected from S. pharaonis samples from throughout the Indian Ocean and western Pacific Ocean. Unfortunately, fossil cuttlebones are quite rare; the structure and composition of cuttlebones make them less likely to occur as aragonitic fossils than nautiloid or ammonite shells, and postmortem destruction of drifting cuttlebones may severely limit deposition in the first place (Hewitt & Pedley, 1978). Sepia ramani is so far only known from the Gulf of Mannar in southeastern India (Neethiselvan, 2001). By comparison, the rhodopsin data showed very low levels of variation. PCRs were performed using a Perkin-Elmer 9700 thermal cycler. In this study, a catalog of the chromatic, postural, and locomotor behaviors was produced for the pharaoh cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis) from coastal waters of Okinawa Island, Japan. The latter finding suggests that the mtDNA and rhodopsin sequences for N Gulf of Oman 5 are in conflict, and that phylogenetic signal from the mtDNA overwhelmed the signal from the rhodopsin data for this specimen in the combined analyses. There is some morphological and behavioural evidence that S. pharaonis may be a complex of closely related species. Ref:, Length: 33cm Depth: 0-130m Found: Mediterranean, Indo-West Pacific Eats: crustaceans, fish Family: Cuttlefishes Scientific Family: Sepiidae. A total of 141 out of 684 sites for COI were variable and 109 of these were parsimony-informative within Sepia pharaonis. Domain: Eukarya Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Mollusca Class: Cephalopoda Order: Sepiida Family: Sepiidae Genus: Sepia (Subgenus: Sepia ) Species: officinalis unpubl. A similar pattern has been found in Lunella coronata, a gastropod found on rocky shores from southeastern Africa through the Gulf of Oman to the western Pacific (Williams et al., in review). Found in shallow waters over sand and seagrass beds of coral and rocky reefs. Norman (2000) did not distinguish Iranian S. pharaonis from his S. pharaonis s. s., and a photo in Norman (2000: 71) of a mating pair of S. pharaonis from Dubai (in the southern Persian Gulf) is used to demonstrate the zebra lines on the third arms that are supposedly diagnostic for S. pharaonis s. s. If S. pharaonis s. s. is equivalent to our western Indian Ocean subclade, this photo suggests that the Persian Gulf may be home to members of both our Iranian subclade and our western Indian Ocean subclade. Allcock et al. Best-fitting DNA substitution models for each partition were chosen by estimating a neighbour-joining tree for the partition using Jukes–Cantor distances in PAUP*. Within the western half of the Indian Ocean, three S. pharaonis clades were found, with a possible boundary between the Iranian clade and the western Indian Ocean clade in the Gulf of Oman. (2007): 1, Red Sea; 2, Gulf of Aden; 3, Persian Gulf (Iran); 4, northern Gulf of Oman (Iran); 5, southern Gulf of Oman (Oman); 6, Veraval; 7, Kochi; 8, Tuticorin; 9, Vishakapatanam; 10, Phuket; 11, Prachuap; 12, Chumphon; 13, Taiwan; 14, Gulf of Carpentaria; 15, northeast Queensland. The geographic regions in question are adjacent to one another; one member of the western Indian Ocean subclade (S Gulf of Oman 1) was collected from the southern coast of the Gulf of Oman, while the Iranian specimens (N Gulf of Oman 2, 3, 4 and 5) were collected about 230 km to the northeast, on the opposite side of the Gulf of Oman. Norman (2000) suggested that S. pharaonis comprises three forms: S. pharaonis (s. s.) (found in the western Indian Ocean from the Red Sea to the Persian Gulf; the eastern limit is unknown); S. ‘pharaonis II’ (Japan to the Gulf of Thailand, Philippines and north Australia) and S. ‘pharaonis III’ (Maldives to Andaman Sea coast of Thailand). Not Reef Tank Suitable. The pharaoh cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis Ehrenberg, 1831 (Sepiidae) is a broadly distributed neritic demersal cephalopod species found from East Africa to southern Japan. Only 10 of 523 sites for rhodopsin were variable within S. pharaonis (all but one of these sites were at the third codon position) and only seven of these sites were parsimony-informative. tullbergi clade as sister to a monophyletic S. pharaonis complex (an S. pharaonis sequence from GenBank is distantly related to the S. pharaonis sampled in our study, suggesting that the GenBank specimen was misidentified; this sequence was excluded from the three-gene dataset prior to analysis).