These are achievable and measurable with some rotating viscosimeters [3] due to their viscosity typically being two to three orders of magnitude higher viscosity than that of the typical eutectic mixture of diphenyl oxide and biphenyl thermal oil. However, there are mixtures, such as a eutectic mixture of biphenyl-diphenyl oxide, called Therminol VP-1, and other synthetic oils that allow the working range of organic TES materials to be expanded up to 400 °C (see Table 3.1). Figure 3.9 shows a heliostat field with a flat receiver mounted on a tower of 100 m height. The thermal mass meter measures gas flow based on the concept of convective heat transfer. Sign up here to get the day’s top stories delivered straight to your inbox. Working Principle he boiling point of water is directly proportional to T pressure. Features Of Thermic Fluid Heater. Vertical heaters take up less space but can pose accessibility challenges. The thermal oils currently used as heat transfer fluids have two clear limitations, their degradation at temperatures above 400 °C and the environmental and fire hazards due to possible leakages. Flat, double axis tracked reflectors (heliostats) focus beam irradiance onto a stationary, central receiver tower with flat or cylindrical absorber. COVID-19 Response: Source manufacturers & distributors providing COVID-19 medical supplies Figure 15.12. Cachafeiro et al. Decreasing the combustion gas temperature the radiant efficacy becomes negligible (it is reduced by an exponent four of the absolute temperature), hence, the heat is transferred by convection in the convective section of the heat exchanger. Research in the use of a compressed gas (e.g., CO2, air or N2) inside the receiver pipes to convert the solar radiation into thermal energy in the form of the sensible heat of the gas is also under way, because this option would overcome the barriers associated with the thermal stability and fire hazards of thermal oil. (7.22). Thermic Fluid Heaters Manufacturer: Thermodyne. The cycle is heated with Duratherm 450 thermal oil at 175 °C and cooled with air at 25 °C. Industry professionals employ thermal fluid heating systems for a variety of different reasons, but chief among them is safety. The Heat Transfer Innovators. (7.21), that the constant A present in Eq. Oil heaters do not experience problems with high pressure or corrosion created by steam. The main characteristics they present are a suitable density and specific heat, a low chemical reactivity and vapor pressure, together with a lower cost than other fluids used for storage. Repeat problem 10.2 with cyclohexane as the working fluid. COVID-19 Response The use of this mixture has made possible the building of commercial plants that reach until 15 hours of energy storage (SENER and Torresol Energy, 2014). System components and their function - The system is made up of a pump that pushes the heat transfer fluid though an insulated piping system to a heater to the processing equipment.There is an expansion tank on the system to allow for the expansion of the hot oil as it gets heated up and contraction when the hot oil is cooled down. (7.21). A general statement on the usage of water/steam in SHE can be formulated based on reviewing different manufacturers: steam in SHE is mainly used for heating applications above the point where the steam condenses to avoid the rather complex condensate handling. Measure your room so you know what square footage you need to heat to help you choose the right size heater: In general, a 1500 watt heater will warm a small room between 150 and 250 square feet with ease. The thermal oil heater design process begins with the identification of the most appropriate setup for a given process system. Due to the large amount of salt required, it is important to study the option of using less refined and therefore more economical salts that can meet engineering demands and requirements. At the same time, the amount of salts used in thermal energy storage systems is very large. Ibrahim Dincer, Calin Zamfirescu, in Advanced Power Generation Systems, 2014. (7.20). •Do not top off with different thermal fluid chemistry. New fluids are under study for replacing thermal oil: molten salt, pressurized gases and water/steam. Working Principle Both gas and oil fired boilers use controlled combustion of the fuel to heat water. [10]. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. A thermic fluid heating system generally used in a system where the pressure is not desired in a process and temperature requirement is higher and using the boiler for high-temperature services may increase the cost of a project.. In some industrial processes, it is possible to directly heat the fluid at the load end, or the secondary fluid. S. Ushak, ... M. Grageda, in Advances in Thermal Energy Storage Systems, 2015. An important problem with this salt is the necessity to protect it from temperatures higher than 350 °C, using an inert gas, to avoid oxidation of nitrites by oxygen from the air. Refrigerator working principle The working principle of a refrigerator (and refrigeration, in general) is very simple: it involves the removal of heat from one region and its deposition to another. (7.20) disappears in Eq. [89] proposed not to determine testing time according to Eq. The thermal oil boiler (Figs. An air preheater It is any device designed to heat air before another process (for example, combustion in a boiler With the primary objective of increasing the thermal efficiency of the process. The coil heats the thermal oil or fluid that is pumped through the thermal oil boiler. FLAME DETECTORS Most fire detection technology focuses on detecting heat, smoke (particle matter) or flame (light) – the three major characteristics of fire. Components of sufficient strength are then chosen, and the heater is constructed. However, screw extruders, which are similar to SHE in several ways, are known to be used for melting of polymers. With this technique, steam is pressed into the ground to solve heavy oil, increasing the output of existing oil pumps. Steam A thermal fluid (hot oil) system operates in a closed loop circulation system with minimal pressure. There is no functional difference between vertical and horizontal heater installation. (7.21), but to apply the same testing conditions to all receivers under consideration to simplify testing. But in many applications, the secondary fluid may be corrosive, making this approach very difficult, if not impossible. Other infrared heaters contain three parts that create heat: infrared light bulbs, a heat exchanger (such as a good metal conductor like copper) and a fan that blows air onto the exchanger to create the heat [source: Wasch]. This fact can, in turn, significantly increase system maintenance costs. Flat, double axis tracked reflectors (heliostats) focus beam irradiance onto a stationary, central receiver tower with flat or cylindrical absorber. Different and more compact solutions are possible for this section of the plant. Stefan Hess, in Renewable Heating and Cooling, 2016. The main advantages of the above described thermal oil boiler (using coils) are the high reliability with a wide range of low quality biomass and no need of active cleaning systems. E. Zarza Moya, in Concentrating Solar Power Technology, 2012. The combustion process can seriously endanger the safety of the exposed mechanical components. Gas flows by the heated flow sensor and molecules of the gas transport heat away, the sensor cools, and energy is lost. However, the crystallization point of molten salt (> 125 °C) is significantly higher than oil (> 12 °C), and a very efficient, and expensive, heat tracing system is required in the solar field to avoid solidification of the molten salt in cold weather. As silicone-based oils have higher thermal limits and are less harmful to the environment and to humans, they are also being considered an interesting option to replace the current thermal oils in CSTP plants. Besides steam or, • Poor heat transfer in the receiver tubes. directly correlated to the working frequency of the generator used; higher it is, much more the induced currents concentrate on the surface. The reaction rate k of the degradation processes, that can be chemical reactions or diffusion, depend exponentially on temperature T (in K) [88, p. 257] by. The outlet temperature of the thermal oil directed to the ORC can rise up to 320°C, due to the use of high quality synthetic oil. For example, in the Solar 2 project the amount of molten mixture salt is 1.5 million kg. Compare the exergy efficiency of these cycles. What follows is a detailed, step by step description of how a heating boiler works. A possibility to achieve an improved self-cleaning effect with co-rotating shafts is to have a single threaded shaft with the neighboring one being a double threaded then. Currently, SHE are mainly used for heating and cooling applications, with thermal oil as HTF. As discussed earlier, these devices gain heat from a source, carry the thermal energy in an oil pumped through pipelines, and then transfer that energy to the secondary fluid. Heat pump water heaters use electricity, but work on a completely different principle than regular electric water heaters. 2. Hence, Pernpeintner et al. Determine the design parameters for a 5 kW power generator and extend the system by including cogeneration of space heating and hot water. Hydrogen holds a promising future as a renewable resource energy, and although currently uneconomical to produce, it will be a convenient and desirable replacement for natural gas over the next decades. Some of the available fuels and energy sources include coal, crops grown for energy, fertile nuclear, fission nuclear, geothermal, hydraulic systems including hydroelectric, natural gas, ocean thermal, oil, oil shale and tar sands, solar, tides, waste heat, etc. walnut shell thermal oil heater working principle for concrete curing plant. All of these characteristics also have benign sources other than fire, such as heat from steam pipes, particle matter from … ico-arrow-default-right. Above 500 °C, receivers with air as heat transfer fluid can be used. The use of the same molten salt in the solar field and in the thermal storage system has clear advantages, because the molten salt currently used has good thermal stability up to 575 °C (175 °C higher than the oil) and the overall plant configuration would be simpler, because the oil/molten-salt heat exchanger now needed in current plants would no longer be needed. •Track heater inlet and outlet temperatures and pressures. The choice between a steam system or a thermal fluid system is governed by the process requirements. We name each heating system component and what it does, in the order that heating system The proposed testing time is 1000 h [89]. Such systems must use a storage medium that melts during charging by steam condensation. [86], for example, investigate the coating before and after accelerated aging by Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy. Along with the flow rate and geometric information, the viscosity of the HTF is relevant for the predominant flow conditions in a system which in turn determine the pipe and instrument design and layout for flow rate measurement as well as associated pressure drops. Characteristic for the degradation process are the constant A and the activation energy Ea. This results in different rotational speeds of the shafts. Overheating of an entire receiver is achieved using heating cartridges or direct Joule heating similarly to heat loss testing described in Chapter 4. However, several organic TES materials have disadvantages, including low decomposition temperature, low density, flammability, and high vapor pressure. Cooling down is achieved by switching off the power. A thermal hot oil heater can serve as an effective solution if all of these precautions are taken. Carlsson [87] describes the method used for collectors for domestic hot water systems. How heat pumps work, in this video we'll be discussing how heat pumps work starting from the basics to help you learn HVAC engineering. Thermal oil heaters operate on the same principle as their steam-based counterparts. Components of sufficient strength are then chosen, and the heater is constructed. Below 400°C, heat-up is limited to 5 K/min, at 400°C the temperature is maintained constant for 24 h, and above 400°C the heat-up-rate is limited to 0.05 K/min. 15.12 and 15.13) transfers the heat content in the combustion gas to the thermal oil.The temperature of the combustion gas at the inlet of the thermal oil boiler is normally about 950°C. The plant has a thermal power of 29 MW and is located in Coalinga, California, USA. the transformer to the electric heat heater relay, completing the circuit and activating the heater. By using this site, you agree to our. In general, horizontal hot oil heater transfer systems allow for better access to the device for maintenance operations, but they also take up more floor space. Heat exchangers are used in the transfer of thermal energy from one system to another when direct heat transfer is not possible. In most vehicles, the heat is provided Enlist Your Company ico-arrow-default-right. •Always record the date and the amount of fluid addition. To increase the effective reflector area (i.e., to reduce cosine losses), the tower is located at the southern edge of the field. Using Thermal Fluid Heating Systems Instead of Direct Fired Systems. Use Equation (10.5) and meaningful assumptions for thermodynamic modeling. It’s also important to ensure that the working fluid is completely contained and is not exposed to moisture or direct sunlight. The advantages and disadvantages of these working fluids are analyzed in Ref. Hence Pernpeintner et al. Determine optimized cycles for the following working fluids: ammonia–water with 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% ammonia concentration, R141b, R123, R21, cyclohexane. Advantages and disadvantages of new working fluids compared to thermal oil for parabolic-trough collectors. The activation energy Ea, on the other hand, needs to be known before the test. Probably that is due to the difficulty of distributing the water in the screw shafts in a way that steam hammering can be avoided. These properties, together with its affordable price, are the reasons why no other thermal oil is nowadays used in CSTP plants. The plant generates steam for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). It can be determined by performing accelerated aging tests at different temperatures and evaluating Eq. The solar steam replaces natural gas, which was previously used as the main heating source for EOR. A thermal power Plant / Station is used to convert heat energy to electric power / Energy for household and commercial applications.In the process of electric power generation, steam-operated turbines convert heat in to mechanical power and then finally electric power. Additionally, at first heat-up of the receiver above 400°C, a three step heat-up procedure is followed. Nonetheless, as a consequence of the elevated operational temperatures prevailing in CSP systems, most designs and operating schemes are likely to be at least partly based on extrapolated viscosity values. WORKING PRINCIPLE. If the lubricating system fail, an engine would succumb to overheating and seizing very quickly. Figure 15.13. An accelerated test to check whether a coating can withstand extended times at these temperatures is to overheat the coating, e.g. Now these days thermic oil, glycol, or water are common heat mediums which are used by being heated and circulated to heat energy in industrial purpose within a closed loop system. In most scenarios like this, the heat exchanger employs a working fluid to transfer heat from a source to a different location. However, the main problem with this oil is that it is an environmental hazard (if leaks occur) and can be harmful to workers. Despite the feasibility of energy storage using this salt having already been proved, one of the challenges to be addressed by R & D in the thermosolar market is the improvement of this fluid to build the next generation of centrals more cheaply and profitably than so far. Alternatively a Swimming Pool Heat Exchanger uses hot water from a boiler or solar heated water circuit to heat the pool water. M. Röger, ... F. Sutter, in The Performance of Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) Systems, 2017. To reduce the convective heat losses, some designs have the absorbing surface placed inside a cavity receiver. Thermal Power Plant Explanation. Since steam condensation takes place at a constant temperature, special thermal storage systems based on latent heat are needed. Molten nitrates are currently the storage fluid used in most of the solar power plants built for commercial purposes so far. The thermal limit imposed by these oils is a serious barrier to increasing power block efficiency, because the temperature of the steam delivered to the power block cannot be higher than 390 °C, thereby limiting steam turbine efficiency. Lubrication plays a key role in the life expectancy of an automotive engine . ​Adapted with permission from documentation elaborated by ITI engineering. Water evaporation inside a SHE has, apart from the experiments in the Fraunhofer ISE laboratory, not yet been reported. Extremely versatile, hot oil heat transfer systems allow for very high efficiency. The temperature of the combustion gas at the inlet of the thermal oil boiler is normally about 950°C. Consider the TFC system represented in Figure 10.1. This chapter reviews the regional planning strategies for hybrid energy optimization. Most commercially available instruments are suitable for operating temperatures up to about 100°C. This yields a testing temperature of Ttest,K of 478°C for receivers to be used with thermal oil having a maximum temperature of 400°C. Other conditions conducive to mechanical breakdown, such as leaks, must be avoided. Inevitably, the correct mixture of energies for appropriate uses would be the result of available resources and economic feasibility for any earthly location. A thermal fluid heater uses a liquid phase heat transfer medium to put heat energy into a process. Mineral oil/petroleum vs. synthetic/aromatic. Image Credit: sunset_girl/Shutterstock.com. 15.12 and 15.13) transfers the heat content in the combustion gas to the thermal oil. The steam is kept on heating till it becomes superheated. In a home or office, burning fuel is the usual way to generate heat using coal, gas, or oil as a fuel. Table 3.2. In either case, the heat is transferred from the working fluid (thermal oil) to the secondary fluid. Although development of latent-heat storage systems is already under way, much R&D is still needed before commercial units become available. The thermal oil boiler (Figs. Figure 3.9. •Lubricating oil tests that include dissolved metals are not adequate. Get a Quote All three of these fluids have advantages and disadvantages when compared to thermal oil, as listed in Table 7.7. Plate and Frame Heat Exchangers. As the activation energy Ea is not determined in this case, lifetime predictions cannot be achieved. One critical and important issue with steam is the necessary (high) wall thickness of the flights, the shafts, and the trough to withstand high pressure, which imposes a thermal resistance to heat transfer. Heliostats offer the highest concentration ratios of all ST collectors. With the availability of automated test benches for overheating, additional aging tests can be conceived. A thermistor is similar to an RTD, but a semiconductor material is used instead of a metal. The water is boiled and made into steam. Manufacturer-independent qualification laboratories often prefer to test entire receivers instead of small absorber samples. The actual load is the number of BTUs or calories of heat energy that must be added. Consider a thermoelectric system driven by concentrated solar radiation, similar to that shown in Figure 10.11, which generates power and hot water. A thermistor is a solid state device and has larger sensitivity than does an RTD. There are propane, natural gas and electric heaters. If your company can help provide supplies, capabilities, or materials for products such as N-95 Masks and Tyvek Suits — Please let us know. Other analysis techniques can be useful in coating development. Principles of operation Thermal deaeration relies on the principle that the solubility of a gas in water decreases as the water temperature increases and approaches its boiling point . When constructing these devices, it’s essential that the working fluid (thermal oil) maintains a temperature between the oil’s flash point and fire point. It is assumed that the degradation of the coating can be described by the Arrhenius equation. Stay up to date on industry news and trends, product announcements and the latest innovations. Trials are ongoing and if successful, the first commercial CSTP plants using silicone oil could be in operation in China in 2018–19. The melted storage medium must crystallize during discharge to produce the steam required for the power block. See The proposed testing temperature was to be determined from the maximum operating temperature in K Tmax,K using. thermal oil heaters, energy efficient chillers and customized products such as waste heat and exhaust gas boilers. Thomas uses cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. For the handling of adhesive products, different mechanisms to establish a self-cleaning effect are available, namely co-current rotating, fully intermeshing screw shafts, or counter-current rotating and fully intermeshing screw shafts. This, by heating the coil through radiation and convection. Thomas Register® and The time for the test ttest can be calculated using Eq. However, long-term experience with silicone oils working under real solar conditions is lacking. The thermal oil heats coils in various types of heat … And in other situations, the secondary fluid may have a desired temperature limit that is low compared with that of the oil (at 350 °C), making this method highly inefficient. However, since higher working temperatures in the solar field also increase thermal losses, the overall solar plant efficiency does not increase at the same rate as the power block. Put simply, a heat exchanger is a device which transfers heat from one medium to another, a Hydraulic Oil Cooler or example will remove heat from hot oil by using cold water or air. (A steam can only attain a particular temperature at a particular pressure. Accelerated aging of parabolic trough receivers is an important means to assure the performance over the lifetime and time of warranty. In fact, for waste heat recovery applications, these devices may see efficiency values above 90% — significantly higher than those of steam-based heating systems. Typical impurities present in commercial nitrates. Furthermore, because of geographical features, energies are peculiar to a region, which will make their intelligent employment desirable. A traditional and still very effective solution consists of a coil as radiant section with the hot gas passing in the center, while the convective section is composed of two or three concentric coils with the hot gas passing in the center and between them. One of the first studies about mixes of molten salts was conducted by Picard (1985), who studied a 53% KNO3 + 40% NaNO2 + 7% NaNO3 mixture for application to storage energy, obtaining a melting point of 140 °C and a Cp of 1.56 kJ/kg K. Due to the outstanding characteristics of this ternary mixture, it was chosen as the storage material in the experimental solar energy plant THEMIS in France in the 1980s. For the system in Figure 10.2 assume that the working fluid is ammonia–water with 25% ammonia concentration and the heat source is combustion gas at 125 °C. The rotational speed of the single threaded shaft is half the speed of the double threaded shaft. A thermal oil boiler fires through a helical coil and generates energy from the hot products of combustion. All products of Wuxi ZOZEN Boiler Co., Ltd. are 100% factory inspected to ensure high quality. What is the Thermal Mass Flow Meter Working Principle? N. Janotte, ... L. Ramirez, in The Performance of Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) Systems, 2017. A heat pump water heater extracts heat from the air inside the house, air outside, or spaces like the garage or basement, concentrates it to a higher temperature, and uses it to heat water in a … California Do Not Track Notice. A. Bowen, in Solar Energy Conversion, 1979. We are using the power of our platform to aid in the mass shortage of critical supplies. Currently molten salt and thermal oil are used as liquid storage media for large-scale thermal storage. The thermal oil boilers can have different shapes and geometries. The choice of a vertical or horizontal configuration is based primarily on the specific plant layout and space constraints. For the system with chemical looping combustion shown in Figure 10.13 do a thermodynamic analysis based on energy and exergy methods. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Scheme of radiant (right) and convective (left) sections of a thermal oil boiler. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081005101000156, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781845697693500078, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781782420880500031, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128114797000075, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128053232000059, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123838605000109, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081004470000079, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080247441500243, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781782422136000035, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978008100447000002X, Biomass-fired Organic Rankine Cycle combined heat and power systems, Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Power Systems, Parabolic-trough concentrating solar power (CSP) systems, Using molten salts and other liquid sensible storage media in thermal energy storage (TES) systems, Advances in Thermal Energy Storage Systems, A Comprehensive Guide to Solar Energy Systems, The working fluid currently used in CSTP plants with PTC is a, High Temperature Thermal Storage Systems Using Phase Change Materials, Currently, SHE are mainly used for heating and cooling applications, with, New methods and instruments for performance and durability assessment, The Performance of Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) Systems, Accelerated aging of parabolic trough receivers is an important means to assure the performance over the lifetime and time of warranty. The Versatility of Industrial Hot Oil Heaters. Terms and Conditions, In the PHE the plates create a frame where the plates are pressed with headers and tie bars, and the seal is guaranteed by gaskets.Gaskets, in addition to their sealing effect, serve to direct the flow of the fluids, and are placed along the grooves at the edges of the plates. Because of the nature of the atmosphere, ambient energies are available globally in varying quantities and each region will need to decide its appropriate use of these energies. The results indicate that in the binary nitrate mixtures, the annualized rates of metal loss were found to be between 6 and 15 pm/year for the stainless steel specimens at 570 °C depending on the composition of the mixture. Thus, as both thermal oils and molten salt mixtures typically exhibit a pronounced temperature dependence of viscosity, particular care is required in reviewing the data used in view of uncertainty and reliability. [89] that take about 3 weeks to complete in a setup with heating rods and without active cooling. (7.21): It can be seen from Eq. In this case, the heating homogeneity on a relevant mass, can be obtained due to the principle of thermal conduction which allows the heating to be transferred in depth. The use of water/steam for direct steam generation (DSG) would also avoid the problem associated with thermal oil, but the two-phase flow (i.e., liquid water + steam) in the evaporating section of every row of collectors in the solar field introduces some technical constraints demanding a more complex solar field control to keep the steam temperature and pressure stable at the solar field outlet during solar radiation transients. ​Reproduced with permission from ITI engineering archives. The thermal limit of 398°C is another constraint of this thermal oil, because the overall CSTP plant efficiency depends on the temperature of the superheated steam delivered to the power block, and such temperature is limited by the temperature of the oil used to generate it. Versatile, reliable, and high-performing, hot oil heaters are used in a range of different process industries. The outlet temperature of the thermal oil directed to the ORC can rise up to 320°C, due to the use of high quality synthetic oil. For aging tests of small absorber samples, the change in absorptance α and emittance ϵ determined with spectrophotometers is the main information of interest. Installed thermal oil boiler. 1. Fulton thermal fluid systems can reach 750°F (345°C) making them an ideal choice for many process heat applications. Thermal Fluid Heaters can improve process consistency and reduce downtime leading to a further increase in profitability. Website Last Modified December 2, 2020. [86]. The engine lubrication system is to distribute oil to the moving parts to reduce friction between surfaces. Usually, each heliostat is individually controlled. All Rights Reserved. Assess the system exergy, accounting for the two outputs (power and hot water). Absorber coatings have to withstand operating temperatures around 400°C for thermal oil plants and above 550°C for direct steam or solar salt plants. [89] propose performing thermal cycling tests on receivers from 200°C to the overheating temperature calculated according to Eq. But today, the use of oil as a thermal fluid is becoming more and more common. To promote the use of lower cost nitrates, several studies of corrosion have been conducted to determine the impact of some impurities on the compatibility with container materials. Copyright© 2020 Thomas Publishing Company. Thermal Fluid vs. Company. At present, the requirements of the chemical quality of the salts in the mixture are very high. Privacy Statement and Thermal oil heaters operate on the same principle as their steam-based counterparts. Thermal Care is a leading manufacturer of water chillers, process cooling equipment and systems for applications worldwide. Accelerated aging of entire receivers is relatively expensive. Thomas Regional® are part of Thomasnet.com. This thermal oil has a maximum working temperature of 398°C and is stable with time so long as this maximum temperature is not surpassed and a suitable treatment system (the so-called “oil ullage system”) is installed in the plant. Besides steam or thermal oil, below 500 °C also molten salt is used to remove the heat from the receiver. Absorber coatings have to withstand operating temperatures around 400°C for, REGIONAL PLANNING STRATEGIES FOR HYBRID ENERGY OPTIMIZATION, Solar thermal process heat (SPH) generation, Heliostats offer the highest concentration ratios of all ST collectors. Plus, this approach offers little control over heat transfer. They can also be employed in a large range of applications across diverse industries, including oil and gas, water and wastewater, and process heating. Solar power tower plant with 3822 heliostats, each consisting of two reflectors with c. 25.5 m², resulting in an aperture area of 194,000 m².