Liberty Island is one of the islands that are part of the borough of Manhattan in New York. [34] He designed the figure with a strong, uncomplicated silhouette, which would be set off well by its dramatic harbor placement and allow passengers on vessels entering New York Bay to experience a changing perspective on the statue as they proceeded toward Manhattan. In the years following the Civil War, most Americans preferred realistic artworks depicting heroes and events from the nation's history, rather than allegorical works like the Liberty statue. She saw a way to express her empathy for these refugees in terms of the statue. [211] In Jack Finney's time-travel novel Time and Again, the right arm of the statue, on display in the early 1880s in Madison Square Park, plays a crucial role. [110] Bartholdi, observed near the dais, was called upon to speak, but he declined. [162] Although the storm did not harm the statue, it destroyed some of the infrastructure on both Liberty and Ellis Islands, including the dock used by the ferries that ran to Liberty and Ellis Islands. The Park Service adhered to that position through the remainder of the Bush administration. "[130][131], Beginning December 26, 1971, 15 anti-Vietnam War veterans occupied the statue, flying a US flag upside down from her crown. The statue was administered by the United States Lighthouse Board until 1901 and then by the Department of War; since 1933 it has been maintained by the National Park Service as part of the Statue of Liberty National Monument, and is a major tourist attraction. It took about 30 years for that oxidation to set in and change the color of the statue completely. Workers erected the world's largest free-standing scaffold,[34] which obscured the statue from view. He did successfully lobby for improved lighting within the statue, allowing visitors to better appreciate Eiffel's design. Instead, he used a diadem, or crown, to top its head. Those are the ones who authorized him to set aside the land where the strong Bedloe's whereabouts to erect the statue there, pr… The statue was dedicated on October 28, 1886. This became a patina over time, a copper carbonate that protects the material beneath. [84], Norwegian immigrant civil engineer Joachim Goschen Giæver designed the structural framework for the Statue of Liberty. What materials make up the Statue of Liberty? The French sculptor Frederic-Auguste Bartholdi created the statue itself out of sheets of hammered copper, while Alexandre-Gustave Eiffel, the man behind the famed Eiffel Tower, designed the statue’s steel framework. There, you can peer out onto the New York Harbor. [80] The committee hired former army General Charles Pomeroy Stone to oversee the construction work. It appeared on commemorative coins issued to mark its 1986 centennial, and on New York's 2001 entry in the state quarters series. After consultations with the metalwork foundry Gaget, Gauthier & Co., Viollet-le-Duc chose the metal which would be used for the skin, copper sheets, and the method used to shape it, repoussé, in which the sheets were heated and then struck with wooden hammers. [27] Bartholdi wrote of his technique: The surfaces should be broad and simple, defined by a bold and clear design, accentuated in the important places. "The New Colossus" tablet is accompanied by a tablet given by the Emma Lazarus Commemorative Committee in 1977, celebrating the poet's life. And I said to myself, "Lady, you're such a beautiful! The expression makes us sick. Financial concerns again forced him to revise his plans; the final design called for poured concrete walls, up to 20 feet (6.1 m) thick, faced with granite blocks. The Statue of Liberty is a famous landmark with an iconic blue-green color. On November 8, 2012, a Park Service spokesperson announced that both islands would remain closed for an indefinite period for repairs to be done. In addition, the head had been installed 2 feet (0.61 m) off center, and one of the rays was wearing a hole in the right arm when the statue moved in the wind. The copper statue, a gift from the people of France to the people of the United States, was designed by French sculptor Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi and its metal framework was built by Gustave Eiffel. [82] Construction on the 15-foot-deep (4.6 m) foundation began in 1883, and the pedestal's cornerstone was laid in 1884. A total of 240 people per day are permitted to ascend: ten per group, three groups per hour. The Statue of Liberty is one of the most (if not THE most) famous monuments in the world. Shove the Bartholdi statue, torch and all, into the ocean until the "liberty" of this country is such as to make it possible for an inoffensive and industrious colored man to earn a respectable living for himself and family, without being ku-kluxed, perhaps murdered, his daughter and wife outraged, and his property destroyed. She initially declined, stating she could not write a poem about a statue. [182] All ferry riders are subject to security screening, similar to airport procedures, prior to boarding. Immediately thereafter, reassembly of the statue began. [5] On the sub-national level, the Statue of Liberty National Monument was added to the New Jersey Register of Historic Places in 1971,[6] and was made a New York City designated landmark in 1976. Finally, the model, like the design, should have a summarized character, such as one would give to a rapid sketch. copper plates. [205] The Libertarian Party of the United States uses the statue in its emblem.[206]. One immigrant who arrived from Greece recalled: I saw the Statue of Liberty. She holds a torch above her head with her right hand, and in her left hand carries a tabula ansata inscribed JULY IV MDCCLXXVI (July 4, 1776 in Roman numerals), the date of the U.S. [42] French monarchists opposed the statue, if for no other reason than it was proposed by the liberal Laboulaye, who had recently been elected a senator for life. It was originally to be crowned with a pileus, the cap given to emancipated slaves in ancient Rome. (2.4 millimeters) thick, the same as two U.S. pennies put together. [108], A nautical parade began at 12:45 p.m., and President Cleveland embarked on a yacht that took him across the harbor to Bedloe's Island for the dedication. [127], In 1956, an Act of Congress officially renamed Bedloe's Island as Liberty Island, a change advocated by Bartholdi generations earlier. The ensuing cheers put an end to Evarts's address. Bartholdi had decided on a height of just over 151 feet (46 m) for the statue, double that of Italy's Sancarlone and the German statue of Arminius, both made with the same method. According to sculptor Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi, who later recounted the story, Laboulaye's alleged comment was not intended as a proposal, but it inspired Bartholdi. When Did the Statue of Liberty Begin to Turn Green, and How Long Did it Take? It was thus, as he put it in a letter to Laboulaye: "land common to all the states. [80], Hunt's pedestal design contains elements of classical architecture, including Doric portals, as well as some elements influenced by Aztec architecture. [106], A ceremony of dedication was held on the afternoon of October 28, 1886. [58] The following year, Bartholdi was able to obtain the services of the innovative designer and builder Gustave Eiffel. [114] With the Army's departure, the NPS began to transform the island into a park. Note: Visitor numbers are estimates only. [57], The head and arm had been built with assistance from Viollet-le-Duc, who fell ill in 1879. [128] In 1946, the interior of the statue within reach of visitors was coated with a special plastic so that graffiti could be washed away. Why is the statue of liberty green? The internal structure is comprised of cast iron and stainless steel. [148] Consideration was given to replacing the arm and shoulder; the National Park Service insisted that they be repaired instead. [35], Bartholdi made alterations in the design as the project evolved. [115], Wars and other upheavals in Europe prompted large-scale emigration to the United States in the late 19th and early 20th century; many entered through New York and saw the statue not as a symbol of enlightenment, as Bartholdi had intended, but as a sign of welcome to their new home. workshop. The internal structure of the Statue of Liberty is cast iron and stainless steel, but the outside is copper that runs about 2.5 millimeters thick. Oral histories of immigrants record their feelings of exhilaration on first viewing the Statue of Liberty. Your email address will not be published. In 1881, the New York committee commissioned Richard Morris Hunt to design the pedestal. Bartholdi completed the head and the torch-bearing arm before the statue was fully designed, and these pieces were exhibited for publicity at international expositions. The erected statue does stride over a broken chain, half-hidden by her robes and difficult to see from the ground. [70] Laboulaye died in 1883. However, it wasn't always green. [110] A scheduled fireworks display was postponed until November 1 because of poor weather.[112]. The Statue of Liberty hasn't always been green - as it was made with an exterior of copper and originally had a much more shiny appearance before a 'patina' coating grew. The statue was dedicated on October 28, 1886. [129] Nearby Ellis Island was made part of the Statue of Liberty National Monument by proclamation of President Lyndon Johnson in 1965. [174] The museum opened on May 16, 2019. [3][188] The monument was expanded to also include Ellis Island in 1965. The piece was titled La Liberté éclairant le monde, the French version of the statue's announced name. During the October 2013 United States federal government shutdown, Liberty Island and other federally funded sites were closed. Eiffel's iron framework was anchored to steel I-beams within the concrete pedestal and assembled. [95] A kindergarten class in Davenport, Iowa, mailed the World a gift of $1.35. For decades it has towered or crumbled above the wastelands of deserted Earth—giants have uprooted it, aliens have found it curious ... the symbol of Liberty, of optimism, has become a symbol of science fiction's pessimistic view of the future. "[76] Faced with these criticisms, the American committees took little action for several years. [21] The son of a friend of Bartholdi's, U.S. artist John LaFarge, later maintained that Bartholdi made the first sketches for the statue during his U.S. visit at La Farge's Rhode Island studio. [157] In Reagan's dedication speech, he stated, "We are the keepers of the flame of liberty; we hold it high for the world to see. [27], Crawford's statue was designed in the early 1850s. [137] Although problems with the armature had been recognized as early as 1936, when cast iron replacements for some of the bars had been installed, much of the corrosion had been hidden by layers of paint applied over the years. The cost to repair the statue and buildings on the island was about $100,000 (equivalent to about $2,350,000 in 2019). [8] After its dedication, the statue became an icon of freedom and of the United States, seen as a symbol of welcome to immigrants arriving by sea. The Statue of Liberty Was Built Like the Eiffel Tower. [132] The statue was also several times taken over briefly by demonstrators publicizing causes such as Puerto Rican independence, opposition to abortion, and opposition to US intervention in Grenada. [179], No charge is made for entrance to the national monument, but there is a cost for the ferry service that all visitors must use,[180] as private boats may not dock at the island. By exaggerating the forms, in order to render them more clearly visible, or by enriching them with details, we would destroy the proportion of the work. [23] In early American history, two female figures were frequently used as cultural symbols of the nation. The statue is a figure of Libertas, a robed Roman freedom goddess. "[156], Immediately following the September 11 attacks, the statue and Liberty Island were closed to the public. General Stone was the grand marshal of the parade. The Statue of Liberty is made out of copper and was once shiny and copper-colored. He found an interesting granite vein and developed a career that made the heyday of New Yo… [74] Harper's Weekly declared its wish that "M. Bartholdi and our French cousins had 'gone the whole figure' while they were about it, and given us statue and pedestal at once. In music, it has been evoked to indicate support for American policies, as in Toby Keith's song "Courtesy of the Red, White and Blue (The Angry American)", and in opposition, appearing on the cover of the Dead Kennedys' album Bedtime for Democracy, which protested the Reagan administration. Sketches and models were made of the proposed work, though it was never erected. [46], Although plans for the statue had not been finalized, Bartholdi moved forward with fabrication of the right arm, bearing the torch, and the head. [152] Access to the pedestal, which had been through a nondescript entrance built in the 1960s, was renovated to create a wide opening framed by a set of monumental bronze doors with designs symbolic of the renovation. [104] In 1901, President Theodore Roosevelt, once a member of the New York committee, ordered the statue's transfer to the War Department, as it had proved useless as a lighthouse. Except Tour Guides", "Circle Line Loses Pact for Ferries to Liberty Island", "NPS: Liberty and Ellis Island ferry map", "Frequently asked questions: Reserving tickets to visit the crown", "Liberty Statue Made a National Monument, Its Base a Park, by Coolidge Proclamation", "Ellis Island Finds Shelter With Miss Liberty", "Proclamation 3656 – Adding Ellis Island to the Statue of Liberty National Monument", "Collections: American Art: Replica of the Statue of Liberty, from Liberty Storage & Warehouse, 43–47 West 64th Street, NYC", "New York-New York, it's a Las Vegas town", "This Lady Liberty is a Las Vegas teenager", "State to start issuing new license plates July 1", "Final Four: States put aside their rivalry and try a little cooperation", "The Statue of Liberty after 125 years – by LPNY Chair Mark Axinn", "The Statue of Liberty in Popular Culture", "10 Movies That Hated The Statue Of Liberty >> Page 6 of 10", Statue of Liberty–Ellis Island Foundation. The armature structure was badly corroded, and about two percent of the exterior plates needed to be replaced. President Reagan presided over the rededication, with French President François Mitterrand in attendance. [34][39] An advantage of this choice was that the entire statue would be light for its volume, as the copper need be only 0.094 inches (2.4 mm) thick. ), The Secret Science of Solving Crossword Puzzles, Racist Phrases to Remove From Your Mental Lexicon. [208] The statue makes one of its most famous cinematic appearances in the 1968 picture Planet of the Apes, in which it is seen half-buried in sand. [sic] You opened your arms and you get all the foreigners here. On December 2, 1916, President Woodrow Wilson pressed the telegraph key that turned on the lights, successfully illuminating the statue. The island reopened at the end of 2001, while the pedestal and statue remained off-limits. The Statue of Liberty was made out of copper and steel, not rocks. [122], After the United States entered World War I in 1917, images of the statue were heavily used in both recruitment posters and the Liberty bond drives that urged American citizens to support the war financially. The pedestal that it sits on is made of granite. According to the National Park Service, the idea of a monument presented by the French people to the United States was first proposed by Édouard René de Laboulaye, president of the French Anti-Slavery Society and a prominent and important political thinker of his time. Inspired by the Statue of Liberty's upcoming anniversary, Harrisburg-area lawyer Gene Stlip decided to honor Lady Liberty right here in Pennsylvania. [28] Delacroix's figure wears a pileus,[24] and Bartholdi at first considered placing one on his figure as well. [29] In so doing, he avoided a reference to Marianne, who invariably wears a pileus. It was also on the same year that the Statue of Liberty torch received one of its latest renovations. [139][140][141] Through its fundraising arm, the Statue of Liberty–Ellis Island Foundation, Inc., the group raised more than $350 million in donations for the renovations of both the Statue of Liberty and Ellis Island. [121], On July 30, 1916, during World War I, German saboteurs set off a disastrous explosion on the Black Tom peninsula in Jersey City, New Jersey, in what is now part of Liberty State Park, close to Bedloe's Island. citizen. About the Statue of Liberty. [53] The New York group eventually took on most of the responsibility for American fundraising and is often referred to as the "American Committee". The Statue's copper has naturally oxidized to form its familiar "patina" green coating. Gutzon Borglum, who later sculpted Mount Rushmore, redesigned the torch, replacing much of the original copper with stained glass. The Statue of Liberty is made of copper, about the thickness of two pennies in most places. [76], The foundation of Bartholdi's statue was to be laid inside Fort Wood, a disused army base on Bedloe's Island constructed between 1807 and 1811. With the announcement, the statue was given a name, Liberty Enlightening the World. The statue was reopened on October 28, 2012,[1][160][161] but then closed again a day later in advance of Hurricane Sandy. It’s one of the sure Statue of Liberty facts that … [52] Committees to raise money to pay for the foundation and pedestal were formed in New York, Boston, and Philadelphia. The implantation site, which was unofficially chosen by Auguste Bartholdi in 1871, when it first came to the US to build ties with the US, was not officially selected until 1877, when the statue seemed to take a real existence for members of Congress. This statue is believed to have been over 100 feet (30 m) high, and it similarly stood at a harbor entrance and carried a light to guide ships. The monument was temporarily closed from March 16, 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic until partially reopening on July 20, 2020. She was the tallest structure when she was first erected in 1886. [29] Bartholdi was initially uncertain of what to place in Liberty's left hand; he settled on a tabula ansata,[36] used to evoke the concept of law. [195] Though not a true replica, the statue known as the Goddess of Democracy temporarily erected during the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 was similarly inspired by French democratic traditions—the sculptors took care to avoid a direct imitation of the Statue of Liberty. The statue is a figure of Libertas, a robed Roman liberty goddess. His work involved design computations, detailed fabrication and construction drawings, and oversight of construction. Bartholdi's early models were all similar in concept: a female figure in neoclassical style representing liberty, wearing a stola and pella (gown and cloak, common in depictions of Roman goddesses) and holding a torch aloft. The lighting was for only a few hours each evening, and it was not until 1957 that the statue was illuminated every night, all night. [113], When the torch was illuminated on the evening of the statue's dedication, it produced only a faint gleam, barely visible from Manhattan. The statue's completion was marked by New York's first ticker-tape parade and a dedication ceremony presided over by President Grover Cleveland. [30] The seven rays form a halo or aureole. The statue's foundation and pedestal were aligned so that it would face southeast, greeting ships entering the harbor from the Atlantic Ocean. Secretary of War Jefferson Davis, a Southerner who would later serve as President of the Confederate States of America, was concerned that the pileus would be taken as an abolitionist symbol. [63] As the pylon tower arose, Eiffel and Bartholdi coordinated their work carefully so that completed segments of skin would fit exactly on the support structure. The Liberty statue project was not the only such undertaking that had difficulty raising money: construction of the obelisk later known as the Washington Monument sometimes stalled for years; it would ultimately take over three-and-a-half decades to complete. [201][202] The Women's National Basketball Association's New York Liberty use both the statue's name and its image in their logo, in which the torch's flame doubles as a basketball. [51], During his second trip to the United States, Bartholdi addressed a number of groups about the project, and urged the formation of American committees of the Franco-American Union. It was swaying more and more when strong winds blew and there was a significant risk of structural failure. [64] The components of the pylon tower were built in the Eiffel factory in the nearby Parisian suburb of Levallois-Perret. As early as 1902 it was mentioned in the press; by 1906 it had entirely covered the statue. The route began at Madison Square, once the venue for the arm, and proceeded to the Battery at the southern tip of Manhattan by way of Fifth Avenue and Broadway, with a slight detour so the parade could pass in front of the World building on Park Row. The statue of Helios, also known as the Colossus of Rhodes, influenced his plans for the eventual construction of Libertas, the subject of the Statue of Liberty ( bit.ly/3fheoj1). With the project in jeopardy, groups from other American cities, including Boston and Philadelphia, offered to pay the full cost of erecting the statue in return for relocating it. Climbers may bring only medication and cameras—lockers are provided for other items—and must undergo a second security screening.[185]. In 1903, the sonnet was engraved on a plaque that was affixed to the base of the statue.[116]. [81] According to author Louis Auchincloss, the pedestal "craggily evokes the power of an ancient Europe over which rises the dominating figure of the Statue of Liberty". [34] As chief engineer,[34] Viollet-le-Duc designed a brick pier within the statue, to which the skin would be anchored. The Statue of Liberty is made of copper 3/32in. About the Statue of Liberty . [138], In May 1982, President Ronald Reagan announced the formation of the Statue of Liberty–Ellis Island Centennial Commission, led by Chrysler Corporation chair Lee Iacocca, to raise the funds needed to complete the work. "[10] The National Park Service, in a 2000 report, however, deemed this a legend traced to an 1885 fundraising pamphlet, and that the statue was most likely conceived in 1870. [22], Bartholdi and Laboulaye considered how best to express the idea of American liberty. When the Statue was unveiled in 1886, it was a shiny brown color, like a penny. The statue underwent a major restoration in … [93] As the donations flooded in, the committee resumed work on the pedestal. The campaign generated contributions of $1.7 million to the restoration project. [10] Given the repressive nature of the regime of Napoleon III, Bartholdi took no immediate action on the idea except to discuss it with Laboulaye. The Statue of Liberty is not only one of the stateliest structures of the US, but also of the world. [105] General Charles Stone claimed on the day of dedication that no man had died during the construction of the statue. The Corps of Engineers also installed an elevator to take visitors from the base to the top of the pedestal. There was a classical precedent for the Suez proposal, the Colossus of Rhodes: an ancient bronze statue of the Greek god of the sun, Helios. [91] Pulitzer pledged to print the name of every contributor, no matter how small the amount given. "[75] The New York Times stated that "no true patriot can countenance any such expenditures for bronze females in the present state of our finances. [61], Eiffel's design made the statue one of the earliest examples of curtain wall construction, in which the exterior of the structure is not load bearing, but is instead supported by an interior framework. [134] The day concluded with a spectacular display of fireworks near the statue. The Statue of Liberty is made of an iron frame with a sheet of pure copper hung over it. The history of the base is inseparable from that of the statue itself. Laboulaye hoped that by calling attention to the recent achievements of the United States, the French people would be inspired to call for their own democracy in the face of a repressive monarchy."[12]. It is the product of French engineering and design of the nineteenth century and stands tall and proud at the New York Harbor. There are several plaques and dedicatory tablets on or near the Statue of Liberty. The enlargement of the details or their multiplicity is to be feared. Liquid nitrogen was used to remove layers of paint that had been applied to the interior of the copper skin over decades, leaving two layers of coal tar, originally applied to plug leaks and prevent corrosion. Is the Coronavirus Crisis Increasing America's Drug Overdoses? The statue was built in France, shipped overseas in crates, and assembled on the completed pedestal on what was then called Bedloe's Island. [23], The statue's design envokes iconography evident in ancient history including the Egyptian goddess Isis, the ancient Greek deity of the same name, the Roman Columbia and the Christian iconography of the Virgin Mary. [10] As Bartholdi had been planning a trip to the United States, he and Laboulaye decided the time was right to discuss the idea with influential Americans. Required fields are marked * A broken shackle and chain lie at her feet as she walks forward, commemorating the recent national abolition of slavery. The story of the Statue of Liberty and her island has been one of change. This page was last edited on 27 November 2020, at 18:44. [72], The committees in the United States faced great difficulties in obtaining funds for the construction of the pedestal. Over the years, the copper has gone through a process called oxidation, where it has changed into a new material. [45] According to Cara Sutherland in her book on the statue for the Museum of the City of New York, 200,000 pounds (91,000 kg) was needed to build the statue, and the French copper industrialist Eugène Secrétan donated 128,000 pounds (58,000 kg) of copper. The committee organized a large number of money-raising events. The change would have happened gradually, so it’s difficult to say when it began, but color images show that the Statue of Liberty was completely green by 1920. Morton. [11] In another essay on their website, the Park Service suggested that Laboulaye was minded to honor the Union victory and its consequences, "With the abolition of slavery and the Union's victory in the Civil War in 1865, Laboulaye's wishes of freedom and democracy were turning into a reality in the United States. Festival of Sacrifice: The Past and Present of the Islamic Holiday of Eid al-Adha. [79] He proposed a pedestal 114 feet (35 m) in height; faced with money problems, the committee reduced that to 89 feet (27 m). The torch-bearing arm was displayed at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia in 1876, and in Madison Square Park in Manhattan from 1876 to 1882. It now stands on the Île aux Cygnes, facing west toward her larger sister. [151] The lighting was again replaced—night-time illumination subsequently came from metal-halide lamps that send beams of light to particular parts of the pedestal or statue, showing off various details. In after-dinner conversation at his home near Versailles, Laboulaye, an ardent supporter of the Union in the American Civil War, is supposed to have said: "If a monument should rise in the United States, as a memorial to their independence, I should think it only natural if it were built by united effort—a common work of both our nations. There is a named peninsula Leetes Island. [183], Visitors intending to enter the statue's base and pedestal must obtain a complimentary museum/pedestal ticket along with their ferry ticket. The statue of liberty is 305 ft tall (about 93 cm) from the ground to the top of the torch. The only females granted access were Bartholdi's wife and de Lesseps's granddaughter; officials stated that they feared women might be injured in the crush of people. Less idealistically, contributions came from those who hoped for American support in the French attempt to build the Panama Canal. Elias-Glacier Bay-Tatshenshini-Alsek, Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park, The 20th-Century Architecture of Frank Lloyd Wright, La Fortaleza and San Juan National Historic Site in Puerto Rico, History of the National Register of Historic Places, National Register of Historic Places Portal, Leslie-Lohman Museum of Gay and Lesbian Art, New York Public Library for the Performing Arts, Malcolm X and Dr. Betty Shabazz Memorial and Educational Center, National Register of Historic Places portal, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Statue_of_Liberty&oldid=990998270, Allegorical sculptures in the United States, Artworks in the collection of the National Park Service, Buildings and structures completed in 1886, Historic American Engineering Record in New York City, History of immigration to the United States, New York City Designated Landmarks in Manhattan, Lighthouses on the National Register of Historic Places in New York (state), National Park Service areas in New York City, National Register of Historic Places in Manhattan, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The Statue of Liberty Enlightening the World, Statue of Liberty National Monument, Ellis Island and Liberty Island, Foundation of pedestal (ground level) to tip of torch, Height of copper statue (to torch): 151 feet 1 inch (46 meters), From ground level to torch: 305 feet 1 inch (93 meters), A plaque on the copper just under the figure in front declares that it is a colossal statue representing Liberty, designed by Bartholdi and built by the Paris firm of Gaget, Gauthier et Cie (, A presentation tablet, also bearing Bartholdi's name, declares the statue is a gift from the people of the Republic of France that honors "the Alliance of the two Nations in achieving the Independence of the United States of America and attests their abiding friendship.". New, powerful lighting was installed in 1944–1945, and beginning on V-E Day, the statue was once again illuminated after sunset. Rusted cast-iron steps in the pedestal were replaced with new ones made of reinforced concrete;[126] the upper parts of the stairways within the statue were replaced, as well. Laboulaye's political allies supported the call, as did descendants of the French contingent in the American Revolutionary War. "[121] The statue was painted only on the inside. [118] Believing that the patina was evidence of corrosion, Congress authorized US$62,800 (equivalent to $1,787,000 in 2019) for various repairs, and to paint the statue both inside and out. President Rutherford B. Hayes, who took office the following day, selected the Bedloe's Island site that Bartholdi had proposed. Why is the Statue green? Copper - Officially dedicated on October 28, 1886, the Statue of Liberty was given as a gift from the people of France to the United States. By 1906, the color had changed to green. [9] Public access to the balcony around the torch has been barred since 1916. [52] On March 3, 1877, on his final full day in office, President Grant signed a joint resolution that authorized the President to accept the statue when it was presented by France and to select a site for it. The statue was dedicated on October 28, 1886. At first, Lady Liberty was actually the same brown color of pennies, but the statue became blue-green over the years because of oxidation caused by the sea water. [168] However, the island remained open during the 2018–19 United States federal government shutdown because the Statue of Liberty-Ellis Island Foundation had donated funds. The United States Lighthouse Board took over the Statue of Liberty in 1887 and pledged to install equipment to enhance the torch's effect; in spite of its efforts, the statue remained virtually invisible at night. A 1/12 replica of the Statue of Liberty made essentially out of junk stands at the intersection of US 280 and US 341 in McRae, Georgia. In order to honor these achievements, Laboulaye proposed that a gift be built for the United States on behalf of France. An attempt the next year to have Congress provide $100,000, sufficient to complete the project, also failed.