Although suffering many injuries inflicted by defending K'iche' archers, the Spanish and their allies stormed the town and set up camp in the marketplace. [66], As soon as they did so, he seized them and kept them as prisoners in his camp. Not much is known about his early life before he earned a name for himself as an adventurous and fearless conquistador, though folk legends give several accounts of his early exploits which however lack c… [16] Pedro had an illegitimate half brother, also named Juan, referred to in contemporary sources as Juan el Bastardo. In February 1519 a new expedition was organized, with a fleet of 11 ships carrying 500 men and some horses to conquer Mexico. 74–5. In a freak accident, he was crushed by a horse that was spooked and ran amok. [63] Pedro de Alvarado sent two Kaqchikel messengers to Tecpan Atitlan at the request of the Kaqchikel lords, both of whom were killed by the Tz'utujil. ... Later between 1523 and 1524 Pedro de Alvarado conquered parts of the civilization. Alvarado also had two other children with other women. ... we waited until they came close enough to shoot their arrows, and then we smashed into them; as they had never seen horses, they grew very fearful, and we made a good advance ... and many of them died. He was one of the few Spanish noblemen that took part in the early stages of the Spanish conquest of the Americas, and was distantly related to prominent conquistador Pedro de Alvarado, who appointed him as an official … [78][nb 2] The Kaqchikel people abandoned their city and fled to the forests and hills on 28 August 1524. [76], Pedro de Alvarado rapidly began to demand gold in tribute from the Kaqchikels, souring the friendship between the two peoples. When Cortés returned to the Gulf coast to deal with the newly arrived hostile expedition of Pánfilo de Narváez, Alvarado remained in Tenochtitlan as commander of the Spanish enclave, with strict orders to make sure that Moctezuma not be permitted to escape. Alvarado planned to use the ships to establish a trading route between Central America and the Spice Islands (modern day Indonesia) . In spite of not being married to him, she was respected for her relationship with Alvarado and for her noble origin. Pedro de Alvarado, Spanish conquistador who helped conquer Mexico and Central America for Spain in the 16th century. Relations between the Spaniards and their hosts were uneasy, especially given Cortés' repeated insistence that the Aztecs desist from idol worship and human sacrifice; in order to ensure their own safety, the Spaniards took the Aztec king Moctezuma hostage. Alvarado's letter to Hernán Cortés describing his passage through Soconusco is lost, and knowledge of events there come from the account of Bernal Díaz del Castillo, who was not present, but related the report of Gonzalo de Alvarado. Alvarado swore to Cortés that he had clear indications that a conspiracy was being prepared and that it was the only way to prevent it. 1511-14: Spaniards conquer Cuba and establish base there. John. [63], In March 1524 Pedro de Alvarado entered Q'umarkaj at the invitation of the remaining lords of the K'iche' after their catastrophic defeat,[64] fearing that he was entering a trap. Not much is known about his childhood and early life experiences though there is no doubt that he grew up to be an adventurous young man. [18] An example is the tale then current that when he was a youth awaiting passage to the Americas, he climbed the church tower in Seville with some friends. Matthew 2012, pp. The conquest of Cuba was launched in 1511, and Pedro de Alvarado was accompanied by his brothers. Little is known of Moscoso's early career. In 1541 he received a letter from fellow Spanish conquistador Cristóbal de Oñate, pleading for help against hostile Indians who were besieging him at Nochistlán. Gómez de Alvarado y Messía de Sandoval. While in Mexico, Pedro de Alvarado went to the assistance of the town of Nochistlán, which was under siege by hostile natives, and was killed when his horse fell on him, crushing his chest.Following Alvarado's death, the viceroy took possession of Alvarado's fleet. De Moscoso had two brothers, Juan de Alvarado and Cristóbal de Mosquera. [81] Alvarado described the terrain approaching the town as very difficult, covered with dense vegetation and swampland that made the use of cavalry impossible; instead he sent men with crossbows ahead. Pedro de Alvarado. Pedro de Portocarrero (c. 1504 – c. 1539) was a Spanish conquistador who was active in the early 16th century in Guatemala, and Chiapas in southern Mexico. 1821. 68, 74. Alvarado gathered his troops and went to help Oñate. [77] A day later they were joined by many nobles and their families and many more people; they then surrendered at the new Spanish capital at Ciudad Vieja. Two subsequent expeditions were required (the first in 1525, followed by a smaller group in 1528) to bring the Pipil under Spanish control. His parents were Leonor de Contreras and Gomez de Alvarado. [79][nb 3] The Kaqchikel kept up resistance against the Spanish for a number of years. He was dispatched by Cortes to invade Guatemala during the Spanish expedition against the Aztecs. 1485 – Guadalajara, New Spain, 4 July 1541) was a Spanish conquistador and governor of Guatemala. Switch your points with another team., Why was Cortés called away from the Aztecs?, Who was Pedro de Alvarado?, Why did Pedro de Alvarado attack the Aztecs? He participated with Francisco Pizarro in the Spanish conquest of Peru.While subduing the Inca Empire he laid the foundation for Quito and Trujillo as Spanish cities in present-day Ecuador … Alvarado's troops encountered a sizeable quantity of gathered warriors and quickly routed them through the city's streets. [8] He was ruthless in his dealings with the indigenous peoples he set out to conquer. Alvarado's close friendship with Cortés was broken in the same year; Alvarado had promised Cortés that he would marry Cecilia Vázquez, Cortes' cousin. [31] At the mouth of the Tabasco River the Spanish sighted massed warriors and canoes but the natives did not approach. Garci Sánchez de Varado or de Alvarado, 2. At what age were males in El Salvador drafted into the military? [74] Three days after Pedro de Alvarado returned to Iximche, the lords of the Tz'utujil arrived there to pledge their loyalty and offer tribute to the conquistadors. Unlike the Inda and Aztec… An experienced and well known military commander by now, he led the conquest of Quiché and Cakchiquel of Guatemala and in 1524 founded Santiago de los Caballeros de Guatemala and served as its governor. Cortes recognized this and gave him important leadership roles. [92] In 1534, Alvarado heard tales of the riches of Peru, headed south to the Andes and attempted to bring the province of Quito under his rule. Key Words II. [77], Two years later, on 9 February 1526, a group of sixteen Spanish deserters burnt the palace of the Ahpo Xahil, sacked the temples and kidnapped a priest, acts that the Kaqchikel blamed on Pedro de Alvarado. The cavalry scattered the K'iche' and the army crossed to the city of Xelaju (modern Quetzaltenango) only to find it deserted. [60], Almost a week later, on 18 February 1524,[61] a K'iche' army confronted the Spanish army in the Quetzaltenango valley and were comprehensively defeated; many K'iche' nobles were among the dead. The country was founded by Captain Gonzalo de Alvarado and his brother, Pedro de Alvarado. He later on married one of his first wife's sisters, Beatriz de la Cueva. [58] On 8 February 1524 Alvarado's army fought a battle at Xetulul, called Zapotitlán by his Mexican allies (modern San Francisco Zapotitlán). In 1532, Alvarado received a Royal Cedula naming him Governor of the Province of Honduras. Hernan Cortes relied greatly on Pedro de Alvarado. 764–765. [69][nb 1] The Kaqchikel kings provided native soldiers to assist the conquistadors against continuing K'iche' resistance and to help with the defeat of the neighbouring Tz'utuhil kingdom. Bantam Books, 2008, p. 29. His early arrival in Cuba allowed him to ingratiate himself with the Governor Velázquez before Grijalva's return. 1517: First Spanish expedition to explore Mexico, Mexicas observe omens of doom. Even though he was highly popular and wealthy by this time, he yearned for more adventure and set out on an expedition to conquer Quito in 1534. During a visit to Spain, in 1537, Alvarado had the governorship of Honduras reconfirmed in addition to that of Guatemala for the next seven years. [14] Pedro de Alvarado had a twin sister, Sarra, and four full-blood brothers, Jorge, Gonzalo, Gómez, and Juan. [53] Alvarado's army included hardened veterans of the conquest of the Aztecs, and included cavalry and artillery;[54] there were also a great many indigenous allies from Cholula, Tenochtitlan, Texcoco, Tlaxcala, and Xochimilco. The Spanish and their allies arrived at the lakeshore after a day's hard march, without encountering any opposition. During the expedition, Alvarado disobeyed Juan de Grijalva, the overall commander of the expedition which greatly angered him. As a punishment, Grijalva sent back Alvarado to Cuba to relay the news of the discoveries of the riches. I have done some research online and in the library, but I would be very grateful for any information that you give me in general on this explorer, but also on the following questions: Alvarado’s troops met determined opposition from a Nahua tribe, the Pipil, that occupied much of the region west of the Lempa River. [36], As punishment for entering the Papaloapan River without orders, Grijalva sent Alvarado with the ship San Sebastián to relay news of the discoveries back to Cuba. The Maya remained hidden in the forest, so the Spanish boarded their ships and continued along the coast. Luisa was given by her father in 1519 to Hernán Cortés as a proof of respect and friendship. The Maya first appear in the Yucatan Peninsula about 2600 B.C. [77] He demanded that their kings deliver 1000 gold leaves, each worth 15 pesos. [33] By means of interpreters, Grijalva indicated that he wished to trade and bartered wine and beads in exchange for food and other supplies. [40] In Tabasco, the fleet anchored at Potonchán,[41] a Chontal Maya town. After Moctezuma was killed in the attempt to negotiate with his own people, the Spaniards determined to escape by fighting their way across one of the causeways that led from the city across the lake and to the mainland. When European explorers arrived in the New World during the Age of Exploration they brought with them many different types of diseases that were not already present in the New World, including: smallpox, influenza, measles, malaria, chicken pox and yellow fever. Spanish efforts were firmly resisted by the indigenous people known as the Pipil and their Mayan speaking neighbors. As governor of Guatemala, Alvarado has been described by W. George Lovell et al. Pedro de Alvarado. Around 1510, he along with his brothers crossed the Atlantic Ocean to venture into the New World. Hernán Cortés and Francisco Pizarro carried out deeds of similar cruelty, but have not attracted as much criticism as Alvarado. Print. Pedro was quickly disappointed to find that most of the indigenous people of El Salvador didn’t have … [84], In Guazacapán, Pedro de Alvarado described his encounter with people who were neither Maya nor Pipil, speaking a different language altogether; these people were probably Xinca. 12 years. [83] The Spanish force camped in the captured town for eight days. The only one of the Alvarado brothers that appears in the registers is Juan de Alvarado, in 1511, leading to the assumption that the rest were already in the Americas by the time the licensing system was established. Be the first to answer! Schele & Mathews 1999, pp. [42] The Maya prepared for battle but the Spanish horses and firearms quickly decided the outcome. Born in Badajoz, Extremadura, he crossed the Atlantic Ocean to arrive in Santo Domingo, on Hispaniola. Messengers from the city of Pazaco, in the modern department of Jutiapa,[89] offered peace to the conquistadors but when Alvarado arrived there the next day the inhabitants were preparing for war. 100. Who is … On Ascension Thursday the fleet discovered a large bay, which the Spanish named Bahía de la Ascensión. The Spanish army under Alvarado soon seized K'iche' kingdom and fought fierce battles with the Kaqchikel kings, eventually forcing them to surrender to the Spanish. 100. The governor heard reports of gold in the newly discovered Yucatán Peninsula and organized an expedition of four ships and 260 men to explore the area. 1518: Juan de Grijalva explores Yucatán. Pedro de Alvarado - Spanish Conquistador I am doing a paper on Pedro de Alvarado, and I am required to "ask a historian" as one of my sources. He was the son of Alonso Hernández Diosdado Mosquera de Moscoso and Isabel de Alvarado (otherwise given as Isabel de Figueroa), natives of Zafra, Spain. Alvarado was received enthusiastically in Cuba and soon plans were made for further expeditions to the gold-rich lands. They became a civiization of major importance about 250 AD in what is now southern Mexico, Guatemala, western Honduras, El Salvador, and northern Belize. Most of the fleet was dispatched to the Philippine Islands commanded by Ruy Lopez de Villalobos. 78-79. Alvarado had no children from either of his legal marriages. Historians judge that his greed drove him to excessive cruelty,[5] and his Spanish contemporaries denounced his extreme brutality during his lifetime. Sharer and Traxler 2006, p. 764. [74], The following day the Spanish entered Tecpan Atitlan but found it deserted. 1492: Columbus lands on an island, what is probably now called the Dominican Republic. [86] Alvarado and his army defeated and occupied the most important Xinca city, named as Atiquipaque. Simon and Schuster, 1993, p. 233. Thomas, Hugh. After the death of Alvarado, de la Cueva maneuvered her own election and succeeded him as governor of Guatemala, becoming the only woman to govern a major political division of the Americas in Spanish colonial times. [88] Alvarado sent out Xinca messengers to make contact with the enemy but they failed to return. COnquest: Montezuma, Cortes, and the Fall of Old Mexico. [82] A few years later, in 1529, Pedro de Alvarado was accused of using excessive brutality in his conquest of Izcuintepeque, amongst other atrocities. What two factors allowed Europeans to explore and map new lands? [30] The Maya inhabitants of Cozumel fled the Spanish; the fleet then sailed south from Cozumel, along the east coast of the peninsula. Sharer and Traxler 2006, pp. Kaqchikel alliance and conquest of the Tz'utujil, 315,319,333,351,355–356,358,360,363,369–370,372. After making an alliance with the Tlaxcalteca, the Spanish went on to conquer the Aztecs. Alvarado, afraid of being mocked, walked out onto the pole with both sword and cloak, and turned around at the end to return to the tower facing it. The fleet was about to set sail in 1541 when Alvarado received a letter from Cristóbal de Oñate, pleading for help against hostile Indians who were besieging him at Nochistlán.[48]:Ch.203. By 1532, Alvarado's friendship with Hernán Cortés had soured, and he no longer trusted him. [12] Alvarado stubbornly resisted attempts by the Spanish Crown to establish ordered taxation in Guatemala, and refused to acknowledge such attempts. [20] By 1511 a system of licenses had been established in Spain to control the flow of colonists to the New World. On 12 February 1524 Alvarado's Mexican allies were ambushed in the pass and driven back by K'iche' warriors but the Spanish cavalry charge that followed was a shock for the K'iche', who had never before seen horses. Alvarado was wounded on his left thigh, remaining handicapped for the rest of his life. In his will, de Soto named Luis de Moscoso Alvarado the new leader of the expedition. Pedro de Alvarado soon arrived at Santo Domingo, on Hispaniola where he met Hernan Cortes who was serving as a public scribe. Gall 1967, p. 41. Fernán Núñez de Contreras or Fernando Martínez de Contreras, 26. Maya temples were cast down and a Christian cross was put up on one of them. A renowned conquistador who participated in several significant Spanish conquests, Pedro de Alvarado is best known for leading the conquest of Guatemala. [73] The rest of Alvarado's army soon reinforced his party and they successfully stormed the island. 764–765. Luisa followed Alvarado in his pursuit of conquests beyond central Mexico. The siege was part of a major revolt by the Mixtón natives of the Nueva Galicia region of Mexico. [39] The fleet made its first landfall at Cozumel, and remained there for several days. Gutierre González de Trejo, 7. The two men struck up a friendship and participated in the conquest of Cuba, under the command of Diego de Velázquez. Also aboard were Francisco de Montejo and Bernal Díaz del Castillo, veterans of the Grijalva expedition. [2], Pedro de Alvarado was flamboyant and charismatic,[3] and was both a brilliant military commander[4] and a cruel, hardened man. He did not have any legitimate children from either of his marriages. Schele and Fahsen calculated all dates on the more securely dated Kaqchikel annals, where equivalent dates are often given in both the Kaqchikel and Spanish calendars. These efforts established many towns such as San José Acatempa in 1525 and Esquipulas in 1560. During this period he also brought the nation of Cuzcatlán (El Salvador) under Spanish control. The Pipil withdrew their scouts because of the heavy rain, believing that the Spanish and their allies would not be able to reach the town that day. [67] At this point Alvarado decided to have the captured K'iche' lords burnt to death, and then proceeded to burn the entire city. Unlike the Aztecs and Incas, the Maya were a much older civilization which had passed its peak by the time of the encounter with the Europeans. His letters show no interest in civil matters, and he only discussed exploration and war. [87], This was a serious setback and Alvarado camped his army in Nancintla for eight days, during which time he sent two expeditions against the attacking army. Recinos 1986, p. 65. 1502: Moctezuma II becomes tlatoani, ruler of Tenochtitlan and a vast empire in Mexico. Then the Spaniards went on to defeat the Pipil of Panacal. [35] A little further along the coast, the fleet encountered settlements under Aztec dominion, and was met by Aztec emissaries with gifts of gold and jewels sent by the Emperor Moctezuma II. Key Words I. Recinos 1998, p. 29. [48]:377–378,381,384–385,388–389 Alvarado's company was the first to make it to the Tlateloco marketplace, setting fire to the Aztec shrines. [19], Alvarado's paternal grandfather was Juan Alvarado "el Viejo" ("the elder"), who was comendador of Hornachos, and his paternal grandmother was Catalina Messía. [48]:283–286 Alvarado claims he did so because he feared the Aztecs were plotting against him but there is no physical evidence to support this claim and the alleged warnings he received came from tortured captives that very likely would have said anything to make the torture stop. Pedro de Alvarado. Celebrities Who Look Beautiful Even Without Makeup, The Hottest Male Celebrities With The Best Abs, The Top 25 Wrestling Announcers Of All Time, Celebrities Who Are Not In The Limelight Anymore. After the massacre the Aztecs fought back and lead the Spanish to retreat for more men. [25] He organised an expedition consisting of four ships and 260 men. In 1533 or 1534 he began to send his own work gangs of enslaved Africans and Native Americans into the parts of Honduras adjacent to Guatemala to work the placer gold deposits. "Conquistador." [38] The crew included officers that would become famous conquistadors, including Cristóbal de Olid, Gonzalo de Sandoval and Diego de Ordaz. He was in a long-term relationship with Luisa de Tlaxcala, a Nahua noblewoman, daughter of the Tlaxcallan Chief Xicotencatl the Elder. By death the following year of Alvarado in the Mixton campaign, the expedition was carried out by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo-Ferrelo. [77], On 8 May 1524, Pedro de Alvarado continued southwards to the Pacific coastal plain with an army numbering approximately 6000,[nb 4] where he defeated the Pipil of Panacal or Panacaltepeque near Izcuintepeque on 9 May. Matthew 2012, p. 81. Pedro de Alvarado y Contreras (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈpeðɾo ðe alβaˈɾaðo]; Badajoz, Extremadura, Spain, ca. How did the Maya devastated? Who did Pedro de alvarado explore with? His life companion was his concubine Luisa de Tlaxcala (also called Xicoténcatl or Tecubalsi, her original names after Catholic baptism). [14], Alvarado and his brothers crossed the Atlantic Ocean before 1511, possibly in 1510. Referred to as "Tonatiuh" or " Sun God " by the Aztecs because of his blonde hair and white skin, Alvarado was violent, cruel and ruthless, even for a conquistador for whom such traits were practically a given. the Spanish arrival at Iximche on 12 April rather than 14 April) based on vague dating in Spanish primary records. Alvarado was deeply suspicious of the K'iche' intentions but accepted the offer and marched to Q'umarkaj with his army. [48]:Ch.203 He died a few days later, on July 4, 1541, and was buried in the church at Tiripetío, a village between Pátzcuaro and Morelia (in present-day Michoacán). The Maya are one of the best studied of the major pre-Colombian native American civilizations. Switch your points with another team. [48]:286,294,296 In a bloody nocturnal action of 10 July 1520, known as La Noche Triste, Alvarado led the rear-guard and was badly wounded. Well known for his skills as a soldier, he also played major roles in the conquest of Cuba and in the conquest of Mexico led by Hernán Cortés. [63], On 14 April 1524, soon after the defeat of the K'iche', the Spanish were invited into Iximche and were well received by the lords Belehe Qat and Cahi Imox. Diaz, B., 1963, The Conquest of New Spain, London: Penguin Books, Levy, Buddy. Hernán Cortés was placed in command;[30] Pedro de Alvarado and his brothers Jorge, Gómez and Juan "El Bastardo" joined the expedition. 40–41. [22], Soon after arriving in Santo Domingo, on Hispaniola, Pedro de Alvarado established a friendship with Hernán Cortés, who at the time was serving as public scribe. Ten days later the Spanish declared war on the Kaqchikel. Alvarado’s army continued eastwards from Atiquipaque, seizing several more Xinca cities. Pedro de Alvarado was a Spanish conquistador credited with the conquest of much of Central America, including Guatemala and El Salvador. The two forces of Conquistadors almost came to battle; however, Alvarado bartered to Pizarro's group most of his ships, horses, and ammunition, plus most of his men, for a comparatively modest sum of money, and returned to Guatemala. Pedro de Alvarado (1485-1541) was a Spanish conquistador who participated in the Conquest of the Aztecs in Central Mexico in 1519 and led the Conquest of the Maya in 1523. Alvarado was made the captain of one of these ships. November 20, 1540 was signed the capitulation between Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza and the Governor of Guatemala, Pedro de Alvarado, to explore the territories in the so-called "land of the especeria". 100. In 1540, the fleet sailed from Acajutla, El Salvador, and reached Navidad, Mexico on Christmas Day. Key Words II. Recinos places all these dates two days earlier (e.g. The Schele and Fahsen dates are used in this section. Pedro de Alvarado was born in 1485 in the town of Badajoz, Extremadura, to Gómez de Alvarado and Leonor de Contreras. [41] From Potonchán, the fleet continued to San Juan de Ulua. Pedro de Alvarado ordered the town to be burnt and sent messengers to the Pipil lords demanding their surrender, otherwise he would lay waste to their lands. He was made Knight of Santiago in 1527. [59], Alvarado then turned to head upriver into the Sierra Madre mountains towards the K'iche' heartlands, crossing the pass into the fertile valley of Quetzaltenango. A nephew of the noted conquistador Pedro de Alvarado, Moscoso married his first cousin, Leonor de Alvarado, the daughter of Pedro de Alvarado's brother Juan and the widow of Gil González de Ávila. Alvarado led the first effort by Spanish forces to extend their dominion to the nation of Cuzcatlan (in modern El Salvador), in June 1524. 0 0 1. [24] Soon after the invasion, Alvarado was managing a prosperous hacienda in the new colony. When he arrived, he found the land already held by Francisco Pizarro's lieutenant Sebastián de Belalcázar. "Conquistador." Sharer & Traxler 2006, pp. Cortés charged Pedro de Alvarado with gathering recruits from the inland estates of Cuba. Not much is known about his early life before he earned a name for himself as an adventurous and fearless conquistador, though folk legends give several accounts of his early exploits which however lack credibility. Recinos 1986, p. 84. After Alvarado’s death, the new viceroy of Mexico, Pedro de Mendoza, seized Alvarado’s fleet. Recinos 1986, pp. He was altogether destitute of that moderation, which, in the delicate position he occupied, was a quality of more worth than all the rest. Bantam Books, 2009, p.166. 100. [57], Pedro de Alvarado and his army advanced along the Pacific coast unopposed until they reached the Samalá River in western Guatemala. [14] Pedro de Alvarado's uncle on his father's side was Diego de Alvarado y Messía,[15] who was the comendador of Lobón, Puebla, and Montijo, alcalde of Montánchez, and lord of Castellanos and of Cubillana. [82], Pedro de Alvarado pressed ahead and when the Spanish entered the town the defenders were completely unprepared, with the Pipil warriors indoors sheltering from the torrential rain. Spanish chronicler Antonio de Remesal commented that "Alvarado desired more to be feared than loved by his subjects, whether they were Indians or Spaniards. [24], Diego Velázquez, the governor of Cuba, was enthused by Francisco Hernández de Córdoba's report of gold in the newly discovered Yucatán Peninsula. [68] After the destruction of Q'umarkaj and the execution of its rulers, Pedro de Alvarado sent messages to Iximche, capital of the Kaqchikel, proposing an alliance against the remaining K'iche' resistance. Diego de Almagro (Spanish: [ˈdjeɣo ðe alˈmaɣɾo]; c. 1475 – July 8, 1538), also known as El Adelantado and El Viejo, was a Spanish conquistador known for his exploits in western South America. Of the companions of Cortez, and among the superior officers of his army, Pedro de Alvarado became the most famous in history. [29], The fleet left Cuba in April 1518,[30] and made its first landfall upon the island of Cozumel,[31] off the east coast of Yucatán. Bantam Books, 2008, p. 42. Seeing the lack of resistance, Alvarado rode ahead with 30 cavalry along the lake shore. [71], The Kaqchikel appear to have entered into an alliance with the Spanish to defeat their enemies, the Tz'utujil, whose capital was Tecpan Atitlan. Ten years after being widowed, Alvarado married one of his first wife's sisters, Beatriz de la Cueva, who outlived him. [30] From Cozumel, the fleet looped around the north of the Yucatán Peninsula and followed the coast to the Tabasco River. After this, the Spanish referred to the river as the Río de Alvarado ("Alvarado's River"). A Spanish Officer named Pedro De Alvarado led some men and killed 200 people. In June, 1536, Alvarado engaged the indigenous resistance led by Cicumba in the lower Ulua river valley, and won. But, underneath this showy exterior, the future conqueror of Guatemala concealed a heart rash, rapacious, and cruel. Why Explore California? [52] Pedro de Alvarado passed through Soconusco with a sizeable force in 1523, en route to conquer Guatemala. He participated in the conquest of Cuba, in Juan de Grijalva's exploration of the coasts of the Yucatán Peninsula and the Gulf of Mexico, and in the conquest of Mexico led by Hernán Cortés. From the natives they received a few gold trinkets and news of the riches of the Aztec Empire to the west. Gall 1967, pp. Diego was a veteran of the campaigns against the Moors. [43] The crew stayed only a short time before relocating to a promontory near Quiahuiztlan[44] and Cempoala, a subject city of the Aztec Empire,. Alvarado was a brave man blessed with great military skills. Four decades after Alvarado's death, his mestiza daughter Leonor de Alvarado Xicoténcatl paid to transport his remains to Guatemala for reburial in the cathedral of the city of Santiago de los Caballeros de Guatemala, now Antigua Guatemala. See the events in life of Pedro De Alvarado in Chronological Order. He had a twin sister named Sara and brothers named Gomez, Juan, Gonzalo, and Jorge. He had talents for action, was possessed of firmness and intrepidity, while his frank and dazzling manners made the Tonatiuh an especial favourite with the Mexicans. [85], Alvarado's army continued eastwards from Atiquipaque, seizing several more Xinca cities. Show: Questions Responses. This marriage gave Alvarado extra leverage at court and was far more useful to his long term interests; Alvarado thereafter maintained a friendship with Francisco de los Cobos that allowed him access to the king's favour. He then founded Santiago de los Caballeros de Guatemala in 1524 and made this town the first capital of Guatemala, which later grew to include much of Central America. [56] By 1524, Soconusco had been completely pacified by Alvarado and his forces. He died while attempting to quell an Indian uprising in central Mexico. He divided up the Indian labor in repartimiento grants to his soldiers and some of the colonists, and returned to Guatemala. [63], Pedro de Alvarado left Iximche just 5 days after he had arrived there, with 60 cavalry, 150 Spanish infantry and an unspecified number of Kaqchikel warriors. The Governor of Guatemala, Pedro de Alvarado, selected Cabrillo to build and provision ships to explore the Pacific because of his skills as a leader and businessman. He was one of Cortes' top Lieutenants. Alvarado settled into a prosperous life as an estate owner. He also served as governor of Guatemala (1527–31, 1537–41). [37] The rest of the fleet put into the port of Havana five months after it had left. [85] At this point Alvarado's force consisted of 250 Spanish infantry accompanied by 6,000 indigenous allies, mostly Kaqchikel and Cholutec. [30], Grijalva did not land at any of these cities and turned back north to loop around the north of the Yucatán Peninsula and sail down the west coast. However, many attributed the misfortune to Alvarado’s violent nature. One of his companions walked out to the end of the pole after removing his cloak and sword, and returned to the tower backwards. "[13] In his easy recourse to violence, Alvarado was a product of his time, and Alvarado was not the only conquistador to have resorted to such actions. The Spanish returned to the Kaqchikel capital on 23 July 1524 and on 27 July, Pedro de Alvarado declared Iximche as the first capital of Guatemala, Santiago de los Caballeros de Guatemala ("St. James of the Knights of Guatemala"). A new expedition was organised, with a fleet of eleven ships carrying 500 men and some horses. 765–766. Why did they [massacre the Aztecs]? [30], At the Papaloapan River, Alvarado ordered his ship upriver, leaving the rest of the small fleet behind to wait for him at the river mouth. She drowned a few days after taking office in the destruction of the capital city Ciudad Vieja by a sudden flow from the Volcán de Agua in 1541. [32] At Campeche the Spanish opened fire against the city with small cannon; the inhabitants fled, allowing the Spanish to take the abandoned city. Opposite a populated island the Spanish at last encountered hostile Tz'utujil warriors and charged among them, scattering and pursuing them to a narrow causeway across which the surviving Tz'utujil fled. Recinos 1986, p. 75.