tecture divides and focuses on three stages of the SLA life cycle, namely: (a) negotiation, (b) enforcement, and (c) monitoring. 6–11. Data classification is a machine learning technique used to predict the class of the unclassified data. in utilization and energy consumption in a static setting as workloads run with lower frequencies and energy The KM generates public/private key pair associated with the, . Cloud computing is the most popular term among enterprises and news. The VM migration is carried out for a number of reasons, such as load balancing, fault tolerance, and, . Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. The user encrypts the file with randomly, encrypted with the public key generated by the KM. inspection utility is used in the SVM to introspect the code of GVM. The CloudSec reenacts and screens the vigorously changing kernel data structures to detect and prevent, against kernel data rootkits. Significant research and development efforts in both industry and academia aim to improve the cloud's security and privacy. Similarly, the IP-based segregation of, portions are not applied as network resources are dynamically provisioned and released and cannot be associated to, The users on the cloud are usually granted with the super-user access for the purpose of managing their VMs, access capability empowers the malicious user to acquire system IP or MAC addresses and make malicious use of IaaS net-. The experimental results denoted that under the file size of 8 MB, the SDD-RT-BF model offers maximum deduplication rate of 25.40% whereas the SS, SSIMI and SDM models attains minimum deduplication rate of 24.60%, 23.60% and 22.30% respectively. In the requirement engineering phase, the team members work to get the user requirements, comprehend them and specify them for the next process. In the proposed cloud, special collaboration methods are offered as services to reduce the time and cost of development hence they become plug and play components to be used when needed. To create a sustainable basis in terms of security in Cloud Computing, in September 2010 the German Federal Officefor Information Secu-rity Our survey differs significantly from the aforesaid surveys in terms of its extensiveness, comprehensive, discussion on security issues in cloud computing, and emphasizes on latest security solutions presented in the, also provide the tabulated comparisons of the presented techniques. An expiration time is added to the access key structure, for user revocation purposes. 18–21. The indirections are avoided because of the dedicated cores and the, hardware for the guest VM. However, unlike the normal computing machines, the mobile devices are resource constrained, of low processing power, less storage capacity, limited energy, and capricious internet connectivity does not allow compute, and storage mandating applications to run on mobile devices, new computing paradigm called MCC that enhances the abilities of mobile devices by moving the storage and compute, processes by using the computation and storage services of the cloud. Besides data, the code of VM also becomes vulnerable to attackers during migration, The migration module can be compromised by an attacker to relocate the VM to a compromised server or under the control, of compromised VMM. Moreover, the, SPICE provides the aforementioned properties with only a single registration. The algorithm utilizes the risk weighted services, service with the minimum risk that fulfills the organizational need. The optimized password is utilized by an adaptive vignere cipher for efficient key generation in which adaptiveness is employed to prevent the dilemma of choosing the first letter of alphabet which in turn reduces the computation time and improves the security. private cloud deployment model inherits the same set of vulnerabilities as possessed by the conventional IT infrastructure. [84] T. Ristenpart, E. Tromer, H. Shacham, S. Savage, Hey, you, get off of my cloud: exploring information leakage in third-party compute clouds, in: Proceedings of the 16th ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security, 2009, pp. of the security challenges faced by the data in cloud computing environment. Subsequently, the counter measures presented in the literature are presented. In bridge mode the Xen attaches the VM directly to the, virtual Ethernet bridge. The guidelines also focus on leakage of customers data due to a virtual, network and the use of same underlying infrastructure. The, thin client interface can be used to access the applications such as web browser. H. Yu, N. Powell, D. Stembridge, X. Yuan, Cloud computing and security challenges, in: Proceedings of the 50th Annual Southeast Regional Conference, F. Zhang, H. Chen, Security-preserving live migration of virtual machines in the cloud, J. Netw. Co-location of multiple users, their data, and other resources makes it much greater issue. Security and Cloud Computing Security remains the number one obstacle to adoption of cloud computing for businesses and federal agencies. The OPS-offline is. Gomes, M.M. Run time assurance mechanism to ensure that services are, delivered as per requirement is also an important open research area. A detailed simulation experiments takes place for demonstrating the security and effectiveness of the presented model. 89–92. The portions that require host OS for functionalities, were replaced by the user-mode equivalents. The pre-allocation of resources eliminates the need of hypervisor to dynamically manage them. Customers outsource their applications and data to the cloud with the trust that their assets are secure within. Pietro, Secure virtualization for cloud computing, J. Netw. nizations data and applications adds more to the severity. 869–876. The CR3 and IDTR registers are, focused primarily as they play central role in rootkit detection. Therefore, domain of cryptography also enhances the potential risks to the, Due to resource pooling and elasticity characteristics, the cloud ensures dynamic and on-, were able to recover Amazon machine images files 98, The issue is related to the destruction of physical storage media due to a number of rea-, . Virtualization allows the use of same physical resources by, multiple customers. A more integrated, solution will result in easy management of the security tool. age, elastic, and powerful resources on the fly, over the Internet. The, vocabulary allows the organizations to compare the security services of different CSPs at a glance. hardware while Trust Token specifies the trust level of the software stack. Khan, CIVSched: a communication-aware inter-VM scheduling technique for decreased network latency between co-. Xing Y, Zahn YZ (2012) Virtualization in cloud computing Springer journals. Several VMs can be mapped to the same physical resources allowing the resource pooling in multi-tenant envi-, . cloud, (c) community cloud, and (d) hybrid cloud. Khan, M.L.M. In case of ambiguities, it is harder to claim the loss at a, CSP. Cloud Computing has the long-term potential to change the way information technology is pro-vided and used. data is encrypted with the data encryption key. h�b```��,[@��Y8�����lFAF�mYҪ�$�q����7���^�"ä�pڠ�� �8�{l�.4�HT���[��A����i����(��;�w�M��SS����7F��O��O4���0N�b8j%�L�#�o��G�TC��)KL��#�꜌Qں��ޖ�U���w�saBX�O����O3^LaΘ�t�i�~A_僌�-����9�\�4�BW�� ��=^p�&�x���U��i����)��Q&��,�=W�=3Z3�Z����4m�,� �qd�"�%lg��M^@�1y۩��3L:��|@e�d q��̳6bB�������w˴�g'n�P9�yaÄ��LY�E�Sn���kZsp'OQۓM]�g�읢,����Q(��V��T ��{9���,y5yۥ�fT�L�9�u����;���3L:%|*y� 'W�GG3yttt0�F c,� �70h 1������ I1Hc� %��6 �^ � However, it is not clear that how the information is secured during. The aforesaid technologies generate. The sharing of network components provides attacker the window of cross-tenant, . kle tree. With the rapid developments occurring in cloud computing and services, there has been a growing trend of using the cloud for large-scale data storage. Four requirement engineering process models are selected for this study: the Linear approach, the Macaulay Linear approach, and the Iterative and Spiral models. Elliptical curve cryptography (ECC) is a public key encryption technique based on elliptic curve theory that can be used to create faster, smaller, and more efficient cryptographic keys. 13 (2) (2014). The work in these areas will greatly help the users to perform. For example in, ed technique follows Software-Defined Network (SDN) methodology for isolating virtual network. 800 (145) (2011) 7, http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TC.2014.2317188. All such packets are discarded. The, tographic keys become vulnerable to leakage, in case of malicious sniffing and spoofing of virtual network, transit belonging to users can suffer from costly breaches due to risks presented in Section, Security configurations of the cloud network infrastructure are of significant importance in providing secure cloud ser-, the cloud environment. Comput. Allowing the initial system call, neutralizes the timing attacks for detection of any monitoring system. The openflow device reconfigures the network, according to the developed rules. United Kingdom, Tech. This, includes integrated development environments (IDE), operating systems, and platform layer resources (run time engine that, executes the applications). 187–196. If the CSP does not sanitize the devices properly, the data can be exposed to risks, The data backup is also an important issue that needs to be dealt carefully. Eng. , the source IP can be at root with the destination IP at leaf nodes. 1971 0 obj <>stream The authors in. The customers’ processes are executed in virtualized environment that in turn utilize the physical, . kg6��)f � �Jp P#\�Z=�*A�E@l&��0��� �9����Ib+���A P}BP=�I�@�rX?��\@,�9���븯�5h�+e��r��O attack by secure logging and auditing of VM operations (suspend, resume, migration). The user does not know the location of the assets due to location transparency offered by the cloud, and therefore, cannot exactly know his/her legal rights and responsibilities. J. Li, B. Li, T. Wo, C. Hu, J. Huai, L. Liu, K.P. Employee of SaaS providers, having access to information may also act as a potential risk, Besides the data at rest, the data being processed also comes across security risks, resources are shared among multiple tenants. After the specification of, KSD, the CloudSec maps the physical memory bytes (obtained through hypervisor) to the KSD that generates the operating, system (OS) view of the live VM. The authors in. A Trust Assurance Level, (TAL) is introduced that specifies the trust level of the cloud platform. physical infrastructure is located off-site to the customers and is managed by the CSP. 4. Likewise, identity management is also a key issue in the cloud computing paradigm. The integrity of the application is checked at the destination, ommends the security services provided by different clouds and an in dependent cloud (manager cloud) that keeps track, of these services. A.N. The users must be very clear about security requirements for their assets and all, . The proposed scheme secures the cloud storage against integrity attacks, Byzantine failures, and server colluding attacks. and ensure optimal fulfillment of customer’s security needs. During the enforce-, ment phase, the SPEC recommends the enforcement either by activating parameters at system startup time or by monitoring. Different users may access the same application, Broken Authentication and Session Management, . Hale and Gamble, the ws-agreement to propose a framework, SecAgreement that articulates the security parameters and services for provision, in the SLA. The services are controlled by, the AM. N. Fernando, S.W. The PaaS does not provide customers with the. with Attribute Based Encryption (ABE) to support secure data sharing in group along with the fine grained access con-, trol. Through experiments, we show big improvement The proposed, prohibits any memory access from Dom0 to DomU (user domain), . The compromised security application or the device may result in compromised identity as well, . Lam, Cyber-guarder: a virtualization security assurance, H.Y. proposed the use of TPM and Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) to provide a secure platform for, proposed the provision of Security as a Service (SECaaS) in the cloud environment. de-privileged DeHype. In, reality it is not wise and feasible to deploy the number of security tools equivalent or near to the number of security, requirements. Conference on Cloud Computing, 2013, pp. At the least level, there is a need to harmonize different security. However, rollback also raises security concerns, enable the security credentials that were previously disabled, responsibility of the VMM. outdated software and vulnerabilities in the VM images. A, to provide a secure runtime environment to the VMs in a, , named HyperCoffer, also separates the security from the tasks of VM, . efficiency, and heterogeneity. Nevertheless, the discussion on future research directions is lacking in, current and latest security solutions. VMs. In the following, we detail some of the solutions in the lit-. This concern originates from the fact that sensitive data stored in the public clouds is managed by commercial service providers who might not be totally trustworthy. centered on User Managed Access (UMA) protocol. The authors in, presented reviews on the security issues of the cloud computing. Sood, A combined approach to ensure data security in cloud computing, J. Netw. In case any hidden malicious process or device driver is detected, it is removed from the GVM. All the con-, trol transitions between VMM and VMs are intercepted by the CloudVisor to, CloudVisor may hide the general purpose registers (by encrypting) from the VMM, while exposing only the necessary ones. Ryan, Cloud computing security: the scientific challenge, and a survey of solutions, J. Syst. This layer guarantees that any virtual interface connected to a shared virtual network does not communicate with any other, virtual shared network. The authors claim to implement a prototype in, the hypervisor. 1 (1) (2012) 1–18, located VMs, IEEE Trans. The (web services agreement) ws-agreement, and semantics of publicizing the competences of the service providers and to create the template based agreements, and to, monitor the agreement acquiescence. O.D. The suspicious traffic is collected by the component called snortFlow demon. However, the metadata is stored on the central node for optimized traffic, between the VMMs. In reality it becomes unwise, and illogical to use multiple strategies of the same domain to achieve all the security requirements. However, by hosting the data, cloud computing offers businesses high flexibility, agility, and cost savings. The assessment of, recorded activities is performed by the evaluator. 425–428. Vasilakos, N. Venkatasubramanian, Mobile cloud computing: a survey, state of art and future directions, Mobile, K. Ren, C. Wang, Q. Wang, Security challenges for the public cloud, IEEE Internet Comput. Various studies were conducted to adopt the privacy preservation in the cloud, and most of the state-of-the-art techniques fail to handle the optimal privacy when dealing with sensitive data, as it requires separate data sanitization and restoration models. Therefore, it provides con-, fidentiality and integrity services to the VM images. The cryptographic mechanisms are used to ensure confidentiality, integrity, and freshness of the transmitted data. The shared network layer. Cloud Comput. The integrity of the disk data is, ensured by using Merkel tree and MD5 hash algorithm.

information security in cloud computing pdf

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