The decorations made from geometric patterns have a strong sense of balance and equilibrium, as a result of the symmetry and the thorough proportions of all the elements. The interior texts are sometimes also stylized with calligraphic decoration. Geometric patterns and arabesques are believed to represent that sense of infinity of God. So, what can we learn from direct observations from the buildings themselves? Furthermore, I like numbers more than other familiar people. He was referred to as Euclid of his time because of his mastery of geometry. Aniconisms is the discouragement of the representation of figures of beings. Then he started making sketches of the tiles, and continued to use the idea of tessellation and repeating patterns throughout his work. Another document from the late 19th century that survived is The Mirza Akbar Architectural Scrolls, which live in the Victorian Albert Museum in London. 107 lessons kilim carpets, Moroccan tiles, decorative vaulting, stained glass, woodwork and metalwork. {{courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount}} lessons Since these geometric patterns are also linked to Islamic culture, we can see similar patterns over a thousand years of Islamic history and across the whole of the Islamic world. For instance, there are particular Islamic geometric patterns in the Blue Mosque, Istanbul, but there are also different specific and unique designs in the Alhambra, Granada. There is also a lot to learn by observing these patterns. So, math people have aesthetic theories for tilings, tessellations, and a general understanding of the symmetry of designs. Humans are capable of looking at the world in different ways. While viewing the images below, notice the widespread use of circles. If you look at the literature on these tilings in terms of the modern-day, the general conclusion is that these were put together with a ruler and a compass. Islamic Geometric Art. I have always believed that the geometric patterns have a profound meaning, and those Islamic art patterns at the mosques depicted the unity of the universe’s creation. flashcard sets, {{courseNav.course.topics.length}} chapters | 's' : ''}}. The painter looks at the world in a certain way, the poet looks at in a different way, the novelist looks at it in another way. There is a famous saying by Plato; “Let no one ignorant of geometry enter in.”. Each line will cause a reflection, just like standing in front of a mirror. a valuable addition to the literature of Islamic art, architecture and geometric patterns. Sculptures are rare in Islamic art, so woodwork featuring intricate geometric patterns is used in the decoration of doors, windows, and ceilings. Free. For instance, the only reason that we have the Greek classical manuscripts today is Islamic mathematicians translated them during the medieval Islamic world and preserved them. First, he was fascinated by the complexity of objects such as the Necker cube and the Penrose triangle. Many of the Islamic patterns we see appear to have been established along simple geometric lines and, in a large number of cases such as the traditional patterns in Qatar, this is evidently the case. Geometric patterns, arabesques, and calligraphy are often used to decorate many interior and exterior elements, like domes and facades. The geometric patterns often incorporate other types of ornamentation. and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you. As a math geek, I have been fascinated with the calligraphy of the Quran. They did something more than just copy; they made it more beautiful and sophisticated. One of Sinan’s most magnificent masterpieces is the Suleymaniye mosque. The art of repetitive geometric shapes can be seen in various parts of the world from the Alhambra palace in Spain to the Samarkand mosque in Uzbekistan. More than 1000 years ago, Muslim scholars and artists, especially in the Baghdad area, created an alternative form of decoration using only the basic tools of Euclid, namely the compass and the straight edge. The artistic wealth of the decorative styles seen in the Maghreb (Moroccan style), the Middle East and the Muslim world in general, has always captivated western and oriental visitors through the extravagance, complexity and exuberant detail of the two genres that stand out: Islamic geometric design and floral arabesques. By Eric Broug. For me, geometry is the divine connection with nature because when I started investigating more about geometric patterns, then I found out that specific numbers create certain shapes that are related to nature — like the numbers in the Fibonacci sequence. Muslim artists have been adorning mosques, palaces, and books with their geometric patterns and calligraphy work since the 8th century. Then Escher was deeply influenced by Islamic architecture during his travel to Granada, Spain. | {{course.flashcardSetCount}} You can test out of the Islamic geometric designs are a combination of repeated triangles, squares, hexagons, stars, and circles and characterized by symmetry, repetition, and complexity. geometric wallpaper abstract geometry decorative arabic vector shapes trendy deco islamic design islamic art islamic background arabic pattern ... Islamic Pattern Vector - 42,731 royalty free vector graphics and clipart matching Islamic Pattern. These designs offer us the possibility of unlimited expansion. Over the centuries, craftsmen have taken a great deal of time, effort and imagination to make their compositions more beautiful. The three non-figurative types of Islamic decoration are calligraphy, arabesques, and geometric patterns. © copyright 2003-2020 Islamic art and architecture also used geometry in many ways. Even today, if we want to learn how to make one of these patterns, unfortunately, most writings just show the result but not the process. For instance, the mimbar, the platform used by the Imam to deliver sermons, is adorned by delicate patterns that run on both sides, originating from eightfold stars in the middle. Since we use technology and so many new apparatus that the first Islamic artists hadn’t a thousand years ago, we have the freedom to create many more of these patterns. I love playing with numbers. This is simple geometry. Another religious influence in Islamic art is the doctrine of Divine Unity, or tawhid, which states that God is unique and is the one and only diving being and creator of the universe. flashcard set{{course.flashcardSetCoun > 1 ? Arabic Geometrical Pattern, and Design by Jules Bourgoin. Introduction Islamic geometric design is a well-known artistic medium dating back many centuries. Islamic architecture can inspire contemporary architecture because it has its own unique charm, and if you dig deep down to the base of this charm, you will find it has a lot to do with geometric Islamic patterns. Designers and mathematicians are pretty sure that Islamic geometric patterns represent philosophical and religious concepts. In many designs, there are particular points where you can rotate the pattern, and you can get something that looks identical. Geometric Patterns Geometric Designs Tile Patterns Pattern Art Textures Patterns Pattern Design Islamic Designs Zentangle Patterns Islamic Motifs SPA 2503 : Alcazar, Seville in Spain Image SPA 2503 featuring decorated area from the Alcazar, in Seville, Spain, showing Geometric Pattern using ceramic tiles, mosaic or pottery. The Quran says that the work of God is unique and unrepeatable. If they happen to find their interest in art, it translates not only into art, but it also serves a higher purpose in connecting the viewer to consciousness. Islamic geometric design was a tradition, but in reality, these geometric patterns are pieces of art, the art of architecture. We recognize that some patterns are identical or different in many ways. But we also know that designers have a wide range of decisions available to them when setting out the construction lines for any particular pattern. Learn about the religious influences behind the development of these elaborate designs, the main elements that compose the patterns, and some examples of their use in art. Islamic Geometric Patterns Dxf Files Free DXF files of Islamic Geometric Patterns. Geometric patterns, other Islamic art specialists have suggested, served important symbolic functions. By just drawing circles, straight lines, and various constructions, a person can delve into geometry. Take a close look at this picture. Geometric patterns in Islamic art and architecture are more than just line drawings. ONLINE – Drawing Islamic Geometric Patterns Build a strong foundation in drawing Islamic geometric patterns by studying the 3 main families of symmetry in depth. Probably the most commonly known Islamic principle influencing art is aniconism, which is the discouragement of the representation of figures of beings. Free for commercial use High Quality Images In window lattices, a combination of open and closed spaces allows the sunlight to enter the room. - Definition, Names & List, Bubble Diagrams in Architecture & Interior Design, Patterns in Nature: Definition & Examples, What Is a Medium in Art: Definition & Terms, What Are the Seven Elements of Art? However, I mostly prefer the practical side of geometry because it takes me away from the numbers for a while and makes me more creative. Representing God is unthinkable in Islam, and it is considered an offensive act of blasphemy. Did you know… We have over 220 college The geometric designs in Islamic art are often built on combinations of repeated squares and circles, which may be overlapped to form intricate and complex patterns. These designs are usually created by carving different patterns on the wooden features. If you approach from the perspective of a designer, they mostly look intricate and difficult to comprehend. You need to make sure that all the edges connect, and there are no gaps or spaces. We have a tendency these days to think of the Islamic world as confined to the oil patch in the Middle East, while, in reality, it is much more than that. Put a … See more ideas about islamic patterns, islamic art, islamic pattern. He looked at the world and then abstracted it, very much like a mathematician. Islamic art is so mesmerising and impressive that I was intrigued to study it and work on some patterns! If you look deeper into it, you'll see that all that complex artwork is formed by simple geometric shapes. So these lines are essential to start understanding the geometric patterns. Islamic geometric patterns are one of the major forms of Islamic ornament, which tends to avoid using figurative images. Even plants are represented in very stylized forms so that they are not seen as imitations of God's creations. David has a bachelor's degree in architecture, has done research in architecture, arts and design and has worked in the field for several years. Combinations of squares and circles form the intricate patterns on various mediums (forms of metal, paper, wood, glass and ceramic material) and art forms (pottery, carpets, jewelry, tiles). first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. These were brought to London from Tehran in 1876, where they were purchased by someone who was visiting on behalf of the museum. Islamic geometric design in architecture: from ancient to modern times. The concept of God goes beyond the idea of the infinity and beyond any human capacity to describe it. The circle and the square are the most basic shapes. imaginable degree, area of Learn how to draw an Islamic geometric pattern with just a ruler, a pencil and a pair of compasses. This vast complex was built in the 13th and 14th centuries and was used as a palace when the region was ruled by an Islamic, or Moorish kingdom. Find & Download Free Graphic Resources for Islamic Pattern. Islamic geometric design is not just about drawing patterns with black lines. On the other hand, if you approach it like a mathematician, those patterns can be thought of as something designed with their hands and drawn with a compass and a ruler. Fortunately, a few exciting documents which have survived hundreds of years tell us something about how these patterns were designed. Download 1,191 islamic geometric pattern free vectors. Learn how to draw an Islamic geometric pattern with just a ruler, a pencil and a pair of compasses. Islamic geometric patterns are pretty easy to construct mathematically. Actually, not only in Islamic art, Islamic geometric art was of significant assistance to Dutch artist Moritz Cornelis Escher who is famous for his optical illusions of ascending and descending stairs, metamorphosis, and reptiles. I am really happy with the results of these fourty elegant geometric patterns, which above all offer editable vectors that you can adjust to your project’s needs. The shapes can be combined in a virtually unlimited number of designs and arrays. This great architect was the mastermind behind 300 plus classical Ottoman structures. Recently, he has adapted several well-known Islamic geometric designs to the hyperbolic plane [Dunham 2001], though each design is developed by hand and no star patterns are included. He had an interest in other cultures. There are so many abstract geometric designs that you would only find in the Alhambra. “The proliferation of arabesque abstract decoration enhances a … Some astronomers actually believed that this was a kind of a union or maybe a direction or a connection towards the universe in the heavens beyond. credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. Also, they had a long history of using mathematics in architecture. Today, the classic art of Islamic patterns has gone beyond borders, and they are heavily utilized all around the world. In addition to geometric patterns, calligraphy and arabesque patterns are the other two types of non-figurative Islamic art. | 13 The people of the Islamic world were ones who were well-versed in geometry in their era. 15 pattern … Geometric patterns occur in a variety of forms in Islamic art and architecture i.e. Select a subject to preview related courses: Mosques and other Islamic buildings have been the canvas for some of the most beautiful artistic creations in the Islamic World. In recent years many artists, myself included, have been inspired to create new works which build off of the patterns and motifs found in these historical works. structures all the complex Islamic patterns using geometric shapes. You can also think that we were to construct patterns in slightly different ways, and, in fact, we just overlaid the tiles to generate the whole pattern. The author has created a beautiful compendium of Islamic star patterns. Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Another design element is the combination of 10- and 16-point patterns over the carved vertical panels of the mosque's wooden Minbar ( Fig. Even Mr Broug admits now that his book contains mistakes. Bring them into the center of the polygon by some distance. When there is a need to describe the idea or the logic behind an art form, we almost always need help from geometry. There is a direct relation between Islamic religious beliefs and the evolution and use of geometric patterns. Importance of Mosques in the Islamic World: Features & Examples, Quiz & Assessment - Islamic Geometric Patterns Overview, Over 83,000 lessons in all major subjects, {{courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount}}, Influences of Islamic Art on European Art: Trade & Diplomacy, Biological and Biomedical Try refreshing the page, or contact customer support. Book covers for the Quran are usually decorated using geometric patterns in the borders or the entire cover. However, artists spent years carving these intricate designs out of wood, stone, and plaster. Suitable for all ages. It is nice to see that Islamic art becomes increasingly common for a lot of people, and its possibilities to bridge the gap between the Muslim world and others. To unlock this lesson you must be a Member. You can build a regular polygon, all the sides are the same length, and all the angles are the same. Portugal and Azerbaijan had a strong Islamic influence in the past. For instance, I love the number 7 more than my aunt. The simple forms of the circle, square, and straight line are the basis of the patterns. So if you want to make an Islamic geometric pattern, you don’t have to make the whole pattern. have 18 Islamic Geometric Patterns dxf files for free to download or view online in DXF Online Viewer. In Islam, carpets and rugs are used for praying and are considered a furniture element of Paradise. 13 chapters | We call them Islamic geometric patterns because they have a lot of mathematics in the structure. However, these works are indicative of the general history of mathematical thoughts at that time. You just need to construct one quarter, and the rest of it can be copied and pasted, you do not need to create the entire pattern. Choose from over a million free vectors, clipart graphics, vector art images, design templates, and illustrations created by artists worldwide! He found inspiration in a foreign and beautiful art form. It is noticeable in many areas likewise in architecture. Bring your creative projects to life with ready-to-use design assets from independent creators around the world. You can build a regular polygon, all the sides are the same length, and all the angles are the same. In Islamic art the geometric figure of the circle represents the primordial symbol of unity and the ultimate source of all diversity in creation. credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level. The grand structures such as buildings, gardens, floors composed of divine geometry. Thousands of new, high … People with different training have different perspectives, and they look at the world in many different ways. Islamic decoration, which tends to avoid using figurative images, makes frequent use of geometric patterns which have developed over the centuries.. The geometric patterns and arabesques are believed to represent that sense of infinity because they don't have a clear beginning nor an end; they are elements combined as a unit without end. They are made up of a small number of repeated geometric elements. lessons in math, English, science, history, and more. As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 83,000 When you look at an Islamic geometric pattern, you can divide it into four identical parts by drawing a horizontal and a vertical line. Islamic geometric patterns are formed from four basic shapes: circles, squares, stars, and multi-sided polygons. Get the unbiased info you need to find the right school. A common feature of Islamic art is the covering of surfaces covered with geometric patterns. Visit the Art 103: History of Western Art I page to learn more. An error occurred trying to load this video. Therefore, representations of animal and human figures are very rare because they are considered to be an attempt at imitating the work of God and competing with His genius. The circle and the square are the most basic shapes. In this lesson, explore Islamic geometric patterns in various art forms, including architecture and carpets. Interest in Islamic geometric patterns is increasing in the West… Last but certainly not least in importance is the element of geometry in Islamic art. Arabesque refers to floral motifs created by combining lines and vegetal elements, which can be flowers, leaves, or tree branches. Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree, Carpet Weaving in Islamic Art: History, Creation & Uses, Calligraphy in Islamic Art: Definition, Styles & Uses, Islamic Art & Architecture: History & Characteristics, Islamic Architecture: Origin, History & Styles, Ancient Egyptian Furniture: History & Design, What Are Geometric Shapes in Art? Get access risk-free for 30 days, paintingred Free. Arabic Geometrical Pattern, and Design by Jules Bourgoin, Islamic Geometric Patterns: Their Historical Development and Traditional Methods of Construction by Roger Penrose, How to Read Paintings: The Assumption of the Virgin by Titian, Blockchain For Art: 32 Terms To Better Understand The Technology. These elements are combined, duplicated, interlaced, and It has a design that belongs to a group of designers back in the day, and they would use this as a pattern resource book. So, if someone imagines the depth of these designs and how much effort was involved, they would be amazed. Plus, get practice tests, quizzes, and personalized coaching to help you Rugs are often decorated with elaborate designs incorporating geometric patterns and arabesques. For instance, mathematicians have trigonometry and calculators. Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal One famous one was the Topkapi Scroll from Turkey (via Kilyos). The snapshot below shows how we’ve generated the whole pattern. The geometric patterns are often incorporated with other types of ornamentation, like arabesque, which are floral motifs made using highly stylized vegetal motifs. just create an account. The traditional designs usually include a frame with one pattern of ornaments and an interior area with another pattern. While tiles are decorated in a variety of patterns, the decoration of china usually follows a circular arrangement. What does an Islamic geometric pattern mean? Even nowadays, we can experience signs of this cultural heritage, and the tangible and intangible impact in both countries. The complexity and variety of patterns used evolved from simple stars through a variety of 6- to 13-point patterns. In the past, this artwork was found in a particular region, but today it is an excellent opportunity to gather people of diverse backgrounds. Suitable for all ages. If we look at the artwork of Seljuks, we notice that they didn’t just copy what went before them. Geometric patterns are used in many Islamic arts, like architecture, carpet weaving, ceramics, woodwork, and book covers for the Quran. In Islamic art, geometric patterns are elaborate artistic designs made by repeating, interlacing, and combining basic geometric forms - circles, squares, stars, and multi-sided polygons - in large arrays. The marvels of Islamic patterns the most recognizable visual expression of Islamic art and architecture are not just a beautiful accident. That means they do not have to calculate the trigonometric functions. Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course. Geometric patterns are also used for decorating ceramic tiles, mosaics, and china. We see very often people are talking about geometry, but actually, most of them don’t know what kind of geometry they are referring to. The use of geometric patterns dates from the early times of Islam. To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page. Already registered? So, that attitude leaves us with a puzzle that makes mathematicians study all of the patterns that they found. Its tiling was an incredible achievement. If you look closely, you will see that drawings have some hints of how the design was produced. All other trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective owners. All rights reserved. These patterns have three basic characteristics: 1. The designs evolved during the following centuries and increased in complexity and level of detail. We can say that was the spirit of the Islamic geometrical designs. Some of the oldest examples are from the 9th-century and consist of isolated shapes and eight-pointed stars. There is no historical evidence that shows us the real meaning of Islamic geometric patterns. There are lots of stunning, easily accessible examples you can find online. Featuring over 600 beautiful color images, Islamic Geometric Patterns: Their Historical Development and Traditional Methods of Construction is. However, everything feels balanced, as if every single element was put in the right place. Combined and complex geometrical patterns are also found in this building, and combinations of 10-, 9-, and 16-point (over the apex) patterns embellish the carved patterns of the dome. Services. The simple elements create complex designs that offer the possibility of infinite growth by repeating and expanding the elements. Islamic Star Patterns in Absolute Geometry • 99 Dunham has a long history of creating ornamental designs in the hyperbolic plane [Dunham 1986b; 1999]. MC Escher is known for his “impossible drawings.” He was not a Muslim but found Islamic art very inspiring. 7 ). I had a lot of opportunities to look at Islamic geometric patterns carefully whenever I went to a mosque. The ancient practitioners of this craft used traditional methods of measurement to create dazzling geometric compositions, often based on the repetition of a single pattern. I think the main reason behind this situation is Islamic artists wanted to keep their talents as a secret, and they weren’t so willing to share their trade secrets with other people. The first thing that I noticed was that they were not figurative. Islamic Geometric Patterns by Eric Broug is the worst book I ever bought, it is full of mistakes almost half of the patterns in this book constructed wrong. Create your account. School of Islamic Geometric Design. The natural division of the circle into regular divisions is the ritual starting point for many traditional Islamic patterns, as demonstrated in the drawings below. 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The lack of figures contrasts with the imagery of Christianity and other religions like Buddhism or Hinduism, in which deities are represented as specific figures, and such representations become objects of art. When you enter the mosque, you can see the geometric synchronization everywhere. Creative people always want to find something interesting that would challenge them and interests them in life. If you are interested in this topic, I can recommend some handy references, which are worth a look. Everything was done by hand, which makes people admire Islamic art and architecture. Those delicate motifs and vibrant colors of geometric designs always drew me into a peaceful state and prompted me to reflect. 19,000+ Vectors, Stock Photos & PSD files. The star shape is derived from squares or triangles inscribed in a circle, and the 8-point star is a common element in Islamic art. This is considered to be an attempt at imitating the work of God; therefore, animal and human representations are very rare. Today, some mathematicians are spending a lot of time to understand the math behind these patterns to derive new formations, new patterns, new directions which even traditional Islamic art was not able to explore before. The Alhambra palace is one of the most beautiful surviving examples of this art form in Granada, Spain. Log in here for access. Not only they did keep the art alive, but they also wanted to use their creativity and skills to build on it. Rotation points sometimes are even more critical than reflection points. 1. of 428. The design is very elaborate and even a little dense. One of them is a classic book, Arabic Geometrical Pattern, and Design by Jules Bourgoin. Islamic Motifs Islamic Tiles Islamic Art Pattern Arabic Pattern Pattern Art Geometric Patterns Mosaic Patterns Geometric Designs Textures Patterns SPA 2503 : Alcazar, Seville in Spain Image SPA 2503 featuring decorated area from the Alcazar, in Seville, Spain, showing Geometric Pattern using ceramic tiles, mosaic or pottery. He said about tessellation (via WOU): It remains an extremely engaging activity, a real mania to which I have become addicted, and from which I sometimes find it hard to tear myself away. There is very little historical evidence of how patterns came into existence. Still, geometric designs were used significantly in Islamic art. 40 hours of teaching material. Islamic Seamless Geometric Arabic Arabian Morroccan Middle East Tile Pattern Background Texture Line Vector Arab Traditional Ramadan Islam Creative Market is the world’s marketplace for design. Islamic geometric patterns are pretty easy to construct mathematically. Create an account to start this course today. An outstanding element in Islamic art is the muqarna, a semi-dome connecting the walls with the roof, consisting of many different tridimensional geometric elements and elaborate ornamentation. Furthermore, Islam had its own Michelangelo, Mimar Sinan, who was the best architect and civil engineer in the Ottoman Empire. Find islamic geometric patterns stock images in HD and millions of other royalty-free stock photos, illustrations and vectors in the Shutterstock collection. Put a point of the star in the center on the edge of every regular polygon and then take the lines and join the points. Enrolling in a course lets you earn progress by passing quizzes and exams. What you do to the patterns after you have drawn them, how you make them more beautiful is a very important part of using your personal creativity. Since the depiction of humans and animal figures is not part of Islamic culture, Muslim artists used geometrical shapes and calligraphy to make repeated patterns as a form of decorative art. - Definition & Examples, CLEP Western Civilization I: Study Guide & Test Prep, ACCESS World History: Online Textbook Help, Western Civilization Since 1648: Homework Help Resource, DSST Art of the Western World: Study Guide & Test Prep, CLEP Western Civilization II: Study Guide & Test Prep, History 100: Western Civilization from Prehistory to Post-WWII, Western Europe Since 1945: Certificate Program, Western Civilization From 1648 to Today: Certificate Program, Introduction to Humanities: Help and Review, Educational Psychology: Homework Help Resource. courses that prepare you to earn As a mathematician, I want to know who was the first one(s) to come up with a given pattern, and what was the artist thinking? We mostly see the Islamic geometric patterns in places of worship are used as a medium to glorify God. fractal Islamic patterns. You end up with a whole variety of stars. It has influenced designs used all over the world in architecture, fashion, and probably even in your kitchen. succeed. The doctrine of Divine Unity, or tawhid, states the unity and uniqueness of God as the creator of the universe, going beyond infinity. For instance, Picasso looked at the world and saw things in ways we could not. Mar 30, 2018 - Explore Christian Calleri's board "Islamic Patterns", followed by 372 people on Pinterest. adidad8 It's a ceiling in Iran. Of course, the Islamic artists made those patterns for specific reasons a thousand years ago, and they are not random pieces. For example, if you look closely at the windows of Suleymaniye, you will see a star pattern that resembles the cosmos. These Islamic geometric patterns are elaborate artistic designs made by repeating, interlacing, and combining basic geometric forms in large arrays. Still, people want to draw these patterns by hand with a pencil in a traditional way. In other words, we can extend the designs endlessly and call them tessellations. There is a direct relation between Islamic religious beliefs and the evolution and use of geometric patterns. He added to his style, and his portfolio is full of lithographs, woodcuts, and more than 2,000 drawings and sketches. Anyone can earn He was exceptionally talented at drawing. In the end, Islamic architects used the same rules. The sad thing is we don’t have a book that shows the mathematics of how these things were designed. Depicted below is an Arabic translation of Euclid’s Elements by Nasir al-Din al-Tusi. Islamic geometric patterns are formed from four basic shapes: circles, squares, stars, and multi-sided polygons. has thousands of articles about every

islamic geometric patterns

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