(2016). doi: 10.1093/bfgp/elu032, Mukherjee, S., Chandrababunaidu, M. M., Panda, A., Khowala, S., and Tripathy, S. (2016). (2013). Russ. Conserved and essential transcription factors for cellulase gene expression in ascomycete fungi. For the efficient bioconversion of plant and algae material, microorganisms or enzymes capable of degrading the indigestible cell wall polysaccharide complexes are the most valuable for biotechnology. (2010). Biosafety Res. Mol. Among 18 marine-derived morphospecies, Phoma sp., Aspergillus ochraceus, and A. terreus, possessed also carrageenase activity (Solis et al., 2010). Marine fungi have been classified as either obli-gate or facultative: obligate marine fungi grow exclu-sively in a marine habitat, whereas facultative marine fungi are of freshwater or terrestrial origin but are able to thrive in marine environments [7–9]. Acta Biochim. Proc. J. Chem. U.S.A. 109, 7397–7402. Mar. CBMAI 1063. Chem. Microbiol. Currently, culture-based analyses and genomic sequencing have identified 1112 marine fungal species in 472 genera. All species are obligate endoparasites of animals, except Nephromyces, a symbiont in marine animals, originally classified as a chytrid fungus. However, even a combination of cultures, microscopy, and DNA-based methods have determined that the vast majority of fungi identified from marine environments belong to Dikarya. Sci. Biotechnol. Alginates are linear polymers composed by two epimers, β-1,4-D-mannuronate (M) and α-1,4-L-guluronate (G) (Synytsya et al., 2015; Deniaud-Bouet et al., 2017). doi: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002554, Nielsen, K. M., Johnsen, P. J., Bensasson, D., and Daffonchio, D. (2007). CBMAI 1601 were isolated from the marine sponges of the north coast of Brazil (Menezes et al., 2010; Otero et al., 2017). Marine fungi: their ecology and molecular diversity. doi: 10.3390/ijms17081360, Manohar, C. S., and Raghukumar, C. (2013). There isn’t much evidence of nematode-eating fungi from marine environments yet, but this is probably just because we haven’t looked for them, specifically. Diversity, ecological role and potential biotechnological applications of marine fungi associated to the seagrass Posidonia oceanica. Fungal enzyme sets for plant polysaccharide degradation. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). Biol. Carbohydr. doi: 10.1021/cr500351c, Pluvinage, B., Hehemann, J.-H., and Boraston, A. In the cases of putative cleaving β-1,3-glucans, the auxiliary domains CBM43 and CBM13 were shown to associate with GH5 and GH17, respectively (Blackman et al., 2014). BioRes. Historically, marine fungi have been understudied. (2015). Blackman, L. M., Cullerne, D. P., and Hardham, A. R. (2014). Texas' Only 100% Pure Saltwater Fishing Magazine. Aspergillus terreus MUT 271, T. harzianum MUT 290 and Penicillium citreonigrum MUT 267 showed a high decolorization percentage (DP ≥ 68%) of 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol (DCPIP) with the highest decrease of hydrocarbon compounds (up to 40%) for A. terreus MUT 271 (Bovio et al., 2017). Environ. Fungi have been found in nearly every marine habitat examined: mud, sand, corals, the water column, mangrove swamps, estuarine grasses, even nestled in the gut of crustaceans – ranging in location from deep sea sediments all the way to surface waters. Most are obligate to the marine environment Facultative marine fungi Freshwater or terrestrial species that can grow and possibly reproduce in the sea Found on wood, sediments, algae, fallen leaves of mangroves, seagrasses, corals, mollusks, and other living marine life Found in all latitudes and throughout all depths However, the global significance of mycobionts of seagrasses, particularly associated with the roots of aquatic plants, is not well understood (Kohout et al., 2012; Vohník et al., 2016). An enzyme with GH5 and GH26 catalytic domains that possessed beta-1,3-1,4-endoglucanase activity contained CBM11 (Carvalho et al., 2004). 5:19. doi: 10.1186/s13568-015-0106-7, Payne, C. M., Knott, B. C., Mayes, H. B., Hansson, H., Himmel, M. E., Sandgren, M., et al. Biotechnol. We collect information from you when you register on our site, place an order... READ MORE. J. Pharm. Fungi have been found to be the only organisms in which there are all three LPMO families AA9, AA10, and AA11, indicating the importance of the oxidative enzymes promotive of lignocellulose utilization for their lifestyle (Morgenstern et al., 2014). Various forms of xylanases exist in nature, which belong to the GH families 1, 3, 10, 11, 30, 39, 43, 51 with the predominance of GHs 10, 11 and 30 in fungi. 12 Marine fungi have proven to be a rich and promising source of novel therapeutics agents. Sustain. β-Xylosidases are grouped into the GH families 3, 8, 30, 39, 43, 52, 54, 116, 120, but the known GHs of fungal origin are limited to families 3 and 43 (Ochoa-Villarreal et al., 2012; Rytioja et al., 2014; Kirikyali and Connerton, 2015; Berlemont, 2017; Thomas et al., 2017). Environ. Filamentous marine fungi as producers of O-glycosylhydrolases: β-1,3-glucanase from Chaetomium indicum. Biol. All Rights Reserved. Cellulase-producing marine fungi among 181 samples isolated from the continental slope sediments of the Arabian Sea belonged mainly to genera Cephalosporium (36.5%), Pleospora (22.5%), Humicola (20.5%), and Penicillium (18.55%) (Smitha et al., 2014). doi: 10.1126/science.1221748, Gao, B., Jin, M., Li, L., Qu, W., and Zeng, R. (2017). J. Biol. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4471-2324-8_2, Vera, J., Castro, J., Gonzalez, A., and Moenne, A. Xylans of different chemical structures forming a backbone with β-1,3-xylopyranosyl linkages are only found in marine macroalgae (Goddard-Borger et al., 2012; Synytsya et al., 2015) (Figure 1). However, there are enzymes with unique structures and specificities related to the substrates of marine origin such as the recently determined fucoidanases of the GH107 family, α-agarases of the GH117 family, or ulvan lyases of PL24 and PL25 families predominantly occurred in marine bacteria (Supplementary Table 2b and Figure 1). These analyses revealed the presence many post-genomic or post-translational modifications during the lignocellulose degradation process, particularly in the presence of salt (Arfi et al., 2013; Panno et al., 2013; Cong et al., 2017). Biochem. AA, monooxygenase; AFC, α-fucosidase; AGA, agarase; AGU, gucuronidase; ALG, alginate lyase; BGL, β-1,4-glucosidase; BXL, β-1,4-xylosidase; CAR, carrageenase; CBHI, exo-β-glucanase (reducing end); CBHIl, exo-β-glucanase cellobiohydrolase (non-reducing end); EG, endo-β-1,4-glucanase; GLU, β-1,4/1,3-glucanase; MAN, β-1,4-endomannanase; MND- β-1,4-mannosidase; ULV, ulvanlyase; XEG, xyloglucan-β-1,4-endoglucanase; XLN, β-1,4/1,3-endoxylanase; XLS, β-1,4-xylosidase (reducing end); XYL, β-1,3-xylosidase (van den Brink and de Vries, 2011; Pluvinage et al., 2013; Rytioja et al., 2014; Zhao et al., 2014; Zhu et al., 2016; Gao et al., 2017; Ulaganathan et al., 2017). doi: 10.1016/j.enzmictec.2009.07.014, Borines, M. G., de Leon, R. L., and McHenry, M. P. (2011). 1964]. They are potential producers of protein-rich digestible biomass from plant and macroalgae, biotechnology relevant enzymes as well as are new source of drugs and biotechnological discoveries. doi: 10.3852/13-072, Hou, Y.-H., Wang, T.-H., Long, H., and Zhu, H.-Y. Genome sequencing reveals the complex polysaccharide-degrading ability of novel deep-sea bacterium Flammeovirga pacifica WPAGA1. 288, 28078–28088. Biol. TABLE 1. 4:36. doi: 10.3389/fenrg.2016.00036, Ali, I., Akbar, A., Anwar, M., Yanwisetpakdee, B., Prasongsuk, S., Lotrakul, P., et al. The importance of chytrid fungi in parasitism of marine phytoplankton is increasingly recognized, and fungal parasites are also known from invertebrates, fish, and even top predators such as seals and … 53, 275–282. About 444 species of marine fungi have been described, including seven genera and ten species of basidiomycetes, and 177 g… Mar. Sustain. A number of genes encoding cellulases and pectinases in N. crassa showed increased levels of the transcripts under carbon starvation and during pretreatment of the culture with cellulose or pectin (Benz et al., 2014). 165, 1754–1769. Microbiol. Taxonomically characterized marine fungi are belongs to either facultative or obligate forms. Microbiol. FEMS Microbiol. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.03.057, Rodriguez-Jasso, R. M., Mussatto, S. I., Pastrana, L., Aguilar, C. N., and Teixeira, J. Appl. Enzyme Microb. J. Appl. Our understanding of the fungi that inhabit our oceans (an area covering more than 70% of our planet’s surface) is quite limited, compared to what we know of their terrestrial brethren. Nevertheless, the comparison of the entire repertoires of plant saprophyte metabolic pathways between marine and terrestrial fungi revealed that the terrestrial fungus Neurospora crassa has only about half as many protein families linked to sugar uptake (159 vs. 328) compared to the marine fungus Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, while both belong to the Fusarium/Nectria clade. 175, 395–408. (2018). 289, 6199–6211. Fungi function as parasites at many trophic levels. Growth of marine fungi on polymeric substrates. These fungi are now often included in screens for novel metabolites, while less attention has been given to their production of hydrolytic enzymes. BMC Microbiol. A comparative systems analysis of polysaccharide-elicited responses in Neurospora crassa reveals carbon source-specific cellular adaptations. As the most renewable energy feedstock on the Earth, the plant or … The composition of polysaccharides of food macroalgae fibers. It is known that the enzymatic breakdown of cellulose in fungi is achieved by GHs from the families 5, 6, 7, 12, and 45 distinguished by the mode of enzymatic action and the substrate specificity: cellulose 1,4-β-cellobiohydrolyses (reducing end) (EC 3.2.1.176; CBH I; GH7); β-1,4-endoglucanases (EC 3.2.1.4; EG; GH 5,6,7,12,45), exo-β-glucanases or cellobiohydrolases (non-reducing end) (EC 3.2.1.91; CBHII; GH 6,7), β-glucosidases (EC 3.2.1.21; BGL; GH 1,3), and the auxiliary enzymes (AA) (Supplementary Table 2). They aren’t visible to the naked eye like the terrestrial mushrooms many people are familiar with. The xylanase gene product with a sequence corresponding to the GH 10 family of the cold-adaptive P. chrysogenum FS010 isolated from deep-sea sediments of Yellow Sea was synthesized with the use of an expression vector pGEX-4T-1 (Hou et al., 2006). Cellulolytic activity was also high in the marine fungus Helicascus kanaloanus associated with the Indian mangrove driftwood samples (Nadu et al., 2011). A. 12, 35–40. 78, 614–649. NCi6, increasing the number of the secreted GHs that were more diverse (nine vs. six families), and more enriched in cellulolytic AA9 (formerly GH61) and xylanolytic GH43, GH10, and GH30 than in conditions without salt (Arfi et al., 2013). Thus, the possibility of the secondary colonization of fungi from land to marine ecosystems cannot be excluded. Improved isolation of glucuronan from algae and the production of glucuronic acid oligosaccharides using a glucuronan lyase. Abstract Background Marine fungi are a diverse group of opportunistic and obligate organisms isolated from marine environments. Polysaccharide-degrading activity in marine and terrestrial strains of mycelial fungi. 8:600. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.00600, Garcia-Vaquero, M., Rajauria, G., O’Doherty, J. V., and Sweeney, T. (2017). De novo assembly and genome analyses of the marine-derived Scopulariopsis brevicaulis strain LF580 unravels life-style traits and anticancerous scopularide biosynthetic gene cluster. Marine-derived fungus Aspergillus cf. NIOM-02 and its radical scavenging activity. Thus, not all marine strains of fungi are producers of active cellulolytic enzymes; probably, due to their specialization to the more frequently occurred substrates in the marine environment than cellulose. Mangrove fungi producing thermostable and active xylanases in the presence of residual sulfated lignin are highly desirable in the enzymatic treatment of wood pulp after alkaline extraction. doi: 10.1134/S0006297913070079, Spatafora, J. W., Volkmann-Kohlmeyer, B., and Kohlmeyer, J. doi: 10.1016/j.ibiod.2010.12.007, Keywords: filamentous fungi, marine-derived fungi, glycoside hydrolases, algae polysaccharides, plant polysaccharide-degrading enzymes, lignocellulolytic enzymes, Citation: Balabanova L, Slepchenko L, Son O and Tekutyeva L (2018) Biotechnology Potential of Marine Fungi Degrading Plant and Algae Polymeric Substrates. 6:269. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.00269, Bonugli-Santos, R. C., Durrant, L. R., da Silva, M., and Sette, L. D. (2010). Renew. Glycobiology 26, 1–3. Xylan is the major component of hemicellulose in the plant cell wall. The enzymatic conversion of major algal and cyanobacterial carbohydrates to bioethanol. doi: 10.3390/md13074137, Hori, C., Gaskell, J., Igarashi, K., Samejima, M., Hibbett, D., Henrissat, B., et al. Evol. NCi6 and Phlebia sp. Marine sediments are filled with thriving masses of yummy, juicy nematodes. The plant polysaccharide-degrading enzymes were also predominant in Pestalotiopsis sp. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. Halo-tolerance of marine-derived fungi and their enzymatic properties. However, all existing data from the genome sequencing projects concerned to glycoside hydrolases (GHs) and concomitant enzymes [auxiliary activities (AAs), carbohydrate esterases (CEs)] indicate that marine fungi have developed the metabolic pathways rather related to breakdown of terrestrial plants than algae or animal residues (Arfi et al., 2013; Kumar et al., 2015). (1979) stated that marine fungi can be categorized into two groups, namely the obligate marine fungi which are able to grow and sporulate exclusively in marine and estuarine habitat; and facultative marine fungi which originated from freshwater and terrestrial habitats but are able to grow and possibly sporulate in marine environment. It’s an exciting time for sea shrooms! Marine fungi can also be classified by their ecology as facultative or obligate. (2015). Sci. Extremophiles 5, 21–26. The alteration of CAZymes in marine fungi caused by the adaptation to marine environment allows them to effectively growth on the algal as well as plant polymeric substrates, including industrial wastes, to produce the mycelium biomass enriched in the proteins and enzymes. The Lore & Legend of Texas Saltwater Fishing. isolated from marine sediments collected in the east coast of India showed the high levels of amylase activity (220–250 U mg-1), whose biomass was grown by solid state fermentation (SSF) with the use of spoiled banana fruit with starch supplementation at 35–40°C and pH 6.5 (Sathya and Ushadevy, 2013). Microbiol. 279, 34785–34793. Total Environ. Among 103 fungal genomes examined, 21 lacked any PL genes (Zhao et al., 2014). The utilization of laminarin, starch, and xylan by Calcarisporium sp. However, their belonging to any GH family has yet to be determined (Sova et al., 2013). The comparison of enzyme expression profiles in the dependence on plant or algae polymeric substrates in the growth medium can reveal the nutrition preferences and CAZyme repertoire of the marine fungi. (2011). Kohlmeyer and Kohlmeyer (1979) which many marine. Isolation, characterization and transcriptome analysis of a novel Antarctic Aspergillus sydowii strain MS-19 as apotential lignocellulosic enzyme source. However, many of them need to be enzymatically pretreated before their use (Synytsya et al., 2015; Abdallah et al., 2016; Trincone, 2018). Commun. Additionally, the new natural product ascosalipyrone (3) and the known metabolites 4 and 5 were … doi: 10.1016/j.algal.2015.02.025, Ulaganathan, T., Boniecki, M. T., Foran, E., Buravenkov, V., Mizrachi, N., Banin, E., et al. (2014). 38, 142–149. Kamei, I., Daikoku, C., Tsutsumi, Y., and Kondo, R. (2008). Chemical composition of red, brown and green macroalgae from Buarcos bay in Central West Coast of Portugal. Pigment and amylase production in Penicillium sp. Remarkably, only fungi possessed β-1,3-glucanases with exo-type action. While the former are considered as obligate marine fungi, the latter are known as marine-derived fungi. Plant cell wall polymers: function, structure and biological activity of their derivatives. J63 with agricultural residues and inducers. Only two strains Beauveria bassiana MUT 4288 and Myrothecium roridum MUT 4326 decolorized the dyes exclusively in the absence of salt, indicating their non-marine origin (Panno et al., 2013). Food Chem. In addition, marine fungi can produce enzymes with unique specificity toward the marine polymeric substrates such as laminarins, fucoidans, ulvans, carragenans, and agar (Bonugli-Santos et al., 2015; Wang et al., 2016). Characterization of salt-adapted secreted lignocellulolytic enzymes from the mangrove fungus Pestalotiopsis sp. LF562 as well as isolates from other experiment, A. oryzae and Dendryphiella salina, produced biomass from alginate (Moen et al., 1995; Singh et al., 2011; Wang et al., 2016). doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.01.031, Chang, Y., Wang, S., Sekimoto, S., Aerts, A. L., Choi, C., Clum, A., et al. Although the strain S. brevicaulis LF580 was isolated from the inner tissue of the marine sponge, it was fully equipped with putative enzymes involved in cellulose degradation similarly to other ascomycetes able to modify or deconstruct plant material (Supplementary Tables 1, 2). doi: 10.1111/mmi.12459, Berlemont, R. (2017). Appropriate methods are necessary to study diversity, ecology, and physiology of marine fungi. Marine fungi are species of fungi that live in marine or estuarine environments. Production of laccase, manganese peroxidase and lignin peroxidase by Brazilian marine-derived fungi. doi: 10.1007/s00203-014-1010-2, Nedashkovskaya, O. I., Kim, S.-G., Balabanova, L. A., Zhukova, N. V., Bakunina, I. Y., and Mikhailov, V. V. (2018). An extracellular S1-type nuclease of marine fungus Penicillium melinii. In general, marine fungi are classified as either obligate or facultative. Introduction The survey of salt marsh fungi from the United States east coast, with emphasis on the needlerush Juncus roemerianus Scheele, continues with the description of three new obligate and facultative marine ascomycetes. Marine fungi are not a taxonomically or physiologically defined group of organisms; rather, they are an ecologically defined group. Facultative marine fungi normally occupy terrestrial or freshwater habitats, but are capable of living or even sporulating in a marine … Front. Schematic representation of algae cell wall polysaccharides and corresponding polysaccharide-degrading enzymes. top-down control; salt marshes; fungi–animal interactions; Relationships between fungus-farming animals and fungi are models of how coevolution can drive positive interactions and establish some species as ecosystem engineers (1–5).These intimate mutualisms can be obligate for both animal and fungal species and are … Lignincola is an example of another cosmopolitan genus of obligate marine fungi of the Halosphaeriaceae, composed of four taxa (although taxonomic placement of two of the species within the genus remains tentative), that occur on submerged and intertidal woody substrata in both temperate and tropical waters (Kohlmeyer 1984; Jones et al.

obligate marine fungi

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