Purpose and Scope A7.C1.2. 2358); Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (10 U.S.C. Implementing Agencies may supplement this Manual with internal regulations or policy guidance covering details unique to their organizations. Not more than 25% of funds may be obligated or expended until (1) 15 days after the Secretary of Defense, in coordination with the Secretary of State, submits a report on plans for the funding, and (2) the President submits a report on how the plan supports a larger regional strategy. 112-239, Section 1274. law vesting the Secretary of State with responsibility to exercise "continuous supervision and general direction" of military assistance, including military education and training, many security cooperation statutes require Secretary of State "concurrence" (i.e., approval) or other State Department input.24. Afghanistan Infrastructure Fund (AIF): FY2011 NDAA, P.L. 409); African Cooperation: Payment of Personnel Expenses (10 U.S.C. Secretary of State Concurrence Required by Legislation? 109-163. $358.5 million is authorized to be available for obligation in FY2016, FY2017, and FY2018. 1050 for Latin America; 1050a for Africa; 1051 for multilateral, bilateral, or regional cooperation programs; and 1051a for liaison officers) into a single authority for "Payment of Personnel Expenses Necessary for Theater Security Cooperation." 113-291). The first catalogs current security cooperation authorities, noting legislative mandates for State Department input, and notification and reporting requirements. DLA prepares FMS cases for cataloging services, disposal services, and Excess Defense Articles (EDA) at the DLA Disposition Services. In subsequent years, Congress granted DOD two additional authorities. Transportation of Humanitarian Relief Supplies to Foreign Countries: 10 U.S.C. 114-92, Section 1251. 103-337. SFRC, HFAC, CDCs (SASC, HASC, SAC-D, HAC-D). 114-113) makes $3.65 billion available through September 30, 2017. 409. 408. Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (P.L. 2282 (formerly known as "Section 1206 Train and Equip"). Recovery and Accounting of Missing Personnel. How better planning, execution, and alignment of resources might lead to improved outcomes. 9381-9383); Distribution to Certain Foreign Personnel of Education and Training Materials and Information Technology to Enhance Military Interoperability with the Armed Forces (10 U.S.C. The FY2017 DOD budget estimate for counternarcotics activities is $845 million, of which $522 million is allotted for international support.30. Reimbursements may not exceed $1.16 billion during FY2016. Annual report due December 31. In Afghanistan, the major authority is the Afghanistan Security Forces Fund (ASFF), which permits DOD to train, equip, and provide other supplies and services to Afghan military and police forces with the Secretary of State's concurrence. Two statutes authorize DOD to conduct activities related to DOD personnel recovery, protection, and accounting with support from and assistance to foreign countries. Building Capacity of Foreign Security Forces, 10 U.S.C. C1.2.4.2. Department of Defense, National Military Strategy of the United States, 2011, pp. 44 As a result, the United States depends on the recipient country to sustain provided capabilities. Whether the value added by close State Department oversight and collaboration in security cooperation outweighs the problems inherent in the extended timelines State Department input involves, and whether the cost-benefit equation changes for different categories of security cooperation. See DoD Directive 5111.01. Presentation of Awards and Mementos to Foreign Personnel. RAND, Review of Security Cooperation Mechanisms, p. 67. Provides authority for DOD to transfer up to $200 million per fiscal year to the fund, but caps DOD contributions to each project at 80% of the cost. The exceptions are disaster and humanitarian assistance, and national security emergencies. Security Assistance Programs. Included in the definition are DOD interactions with both foreign defense and foreign nonmilitary security establishments. They maintain appropriate records and furnish prescribed reports as requested. 10 U.S.C. It provides summary overviews of nine categories of security cooperation assistance and activities, including the amounts of congressionally authorized funding, where available, and any legislatively required State Department input.1 It discusses recent issues related to the development, implementation, sustainment, and coordination of security cooperation to support continuing congressional oversight. In recent years, addressing deficiencies in foreign defense institutions has been increasingly perceived as an integral part of BPC programs. Congress. Expires Sept. 30, 2016. DOD has yet to conclude efforts to produce "budget quality" figures for public distribution. For funds to be expended, a combatant command commander must first determine that an action is necessary to conduct a nonconventional assisted recovery effort. For instance, DOD officials state that a recent U.S. European Command naval combined training exercise required eight authorities, which made program implementation and coordination among participants difficult. Senate Armed Services Committee, "National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017: Executive Summary," p. 14. Authorizes the Secretary of Defense to conduct human rights training of security forces and associated security ministries of foreign countries. Congress has several avenues of influence in the design, implementation, and oversight of U.S. security cooperation activities. These include a lack of authority to19, Also needed, according to some defense analysts, are, Coordination of Authorities and Resources. The scope of the initial meeting will be to determine if the Purchaser has met the ... DSCA I-98-079527... and was forwarded to DSCA on [date]. Semi-annual reports submitted no later than 60 days after the end of the first half of fiscal years 2015, 2016, and 2017, and the second half of 2015 and 2016. 114-113) makes $1.1 billion available until September 30, 2017. how often and in what cases DOD has used FMF to sustain DOD security cooperation programs, and what effect DOD's use of FMF for sustainment purposes has on the FMF budget. The White House, "Fact Sheet: U.S. Security Sector Assistance Policy," April 5, 2013. DOD officials note that personnel responsible for security cooperation efforts at the U.S. embassies and in the geographic COCOMs navigate an increasingly complex web of authorities, making coordinated and timely implementation of foreign assistance programs difficult. (For more on FMF and IMET, .) Under Secretary of Defense for Policy (USD(P)). CRS Report R42641, Global Security Contingency Fund: Summary and Issue Overview, by Nina M. Serafino. DOD defines security assistance as a group of State Department programs authorized by the 1961 Foreign Assistance Act (FAA) and the Arms Export Control Actor of 1976 (AECA). Authorizes the Secretary of Defense to provide up to $105 million in any fiscal year of logistics, supplies, and services to allied forces participating in a combined operation with the United States, as well as to a nonmilitary logistics, security, or similar agency of an allied government if it would benefit U.S. armed forces. (A defense health initiative to combat the spread of HIV/AIDS is conducted as part of some combined exercises, especially in Africa.). Report due no later than December 31, 2017 on expenditure of funds in support of stability activities in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), (Special requirements apply to support to Pakistan.). "1022" Joint Task Forces Support to Law Enforcement Agencies to Counter Transnational Organized Crime and Counter-Terrorism: FY2004 NDAA, P.L. Congress has authorized up to $350 million per fiscal year for 10 U.S.C. Authorization or appropriations legislation does not specify funding levels for the following authorities: Acquisition and Cross-Servicing Agreement (ACSA) (10 U.S.C. The authority requires the concurrence of the Secretary of State. Expires Sept. 30, 2017. Any broadening of DOD authority may have possible implications for future DOD budgets and congressional oversight. C1.3.2.2. 114-113). In line with this effort, the 2015 NMS identifies military engagement and security cooperation as a joint force prioritized mission.16. The House and Senate versions of the FY2017 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA), now in conference, contain different proposals to address these problems. 111-84, Section 1207, as amended); Temporary Assignment of Foreign Personnel for Information Security: (10 U.S.C. 2350l. 103-337. 113-291, Section1236, as amended. U.S. military efforts to train, equip, transport, and sustain Georgian military forces to assist the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) mission in Afghanistan required multiple authorities and funding streams from FY2010 through FY2012 (during which $46.2 million was spent), which led to unanticipated problems and delays throughout the multiyear process. Security Cooperation Programs. In coordination with the USD(P), the MILDEPs develop campaign support plans, as appropriate, serve as IAs to conduct SC programs and activities, and complete campaign support plan assessments contributing to CCMD campaign plans, as appropriate. C1.3.2.1. 112-239, Section 1222, as amended.Expires Dec. 31, 2016. C1.2.4.1. FY2016 enacted funding is $10.8 million. SC activities must be in compliance with law, this Manual and additional policy guidance issued by DSCA, the Secretary of Defense, and the Secretary of State. 2166. The advantages and disadvantages of amalgamating all security cooperation funding in one budget account. CN due 15 days prior to providing support. The USD(AT&L) is the principal staff assistant and advisor to the Secretary of Defense for all matters relating to the DoD Acquisition System; research and development; production; logistics; command, control, communications, and intelligence activities related to acquisition; military construction; and procurement. 23 Conforming to the Title 22 U.S.C. SC activities shall be planned, programmed, budgeted, and executed with the same high degree of attention and efficiency as other integral DoD activities. If the military project is intended to correct a deficiency that is a threat to life, health, or safety, the project may have an approved cost up to $4 million. Under Secretary of Defense, Comptroller (USD(C)). 113-291, Section 1207). 113-66, Section 1204). C1.3. Each year, the Administration submits a SA appropriations budget request as part of the President’s budget submission. 99-433. Both State Department and DOD officials recognize that current modes of collaboration complicate timely implementation of activities and sometimes thwart them.41 Nevertheless, no consensus exists on how to streamline processes, given inherent tensions in the dual goals of reducing the time required for close collaboration while preserving the coherence of U.S. foreign policymaking. broad authority to conduct counterterrorism training, particularly training that constitutes preventive action. CN submitted 15 days prior to the receipt of contributions. whether consolidating authorities would enable Congress not only to oversee specific programs, but also to better monitor the ability of these programs to meet long-term strategic goals. European Reassurance Initiative (ERI): FY2015 NDAA, P.L. DOD defines "security cooperation" as a broad set of activities undertaken by DOD to encourage and enable international partners to work with the United States to achieve strategic objectives. "1234" Logistical Support for Coalition Forces Supporting Operations in Afghanistan and Iraq: FY2008 NDAA, P.L. Congress has also authorized DOD, with Secretary of State concurrence, to reimburse the armed forces of Jordan and Lebanon up to $150 million for increasing and maintaining security along their borders with Syria. 113-291, Section 1211. Under Secretary of Defense, Personnel and Readiness (USD(P&R)). Up to $50 million is authorized for certain types of defense lethal assistance and assistance to the other Partnership for Peace nations against Russian aggression. C1.3.2.9. The Senate version of the FY2017 NDAA (S. 2943) offers especially broad reforms, including restructuring of oversight and funding mechanisms. Found 1060 sentences matching phrase "scope of cooperation".Found in 51 ms. These priorities include the following: ensure consistency with broader national security goals; foster U.S. government policy coherence and interagency collaboration; build sustainable capacity through comprehensive sector strategies; be more selective and use resources for the greatest impact; be responsive to urgent crises, emergent opportunities, and changes in partner security environments; ensure that short-term interventions are consistent with long-term goals; inform policy with rigorous analysis, assessments, and evaluations; analyze, plan, and act regionally; and coordinate with other donors. Arrangement or agreement expires five years after the date on which Secretary of Defense first enters into the arrangement or agreement, as described in the legislation. 402); Humanitarian Assistance: (10 U.S.C. C1.2.3. Secretary of Defense and Secretary of State to jointly formulate programs and coordinate their implementation. Also included in this effort are program assessment, program development, and the use of general purpose forces (GPF) to conduct capacity-building programs. 2010). These authorities and programs are discussed in detail in Chapter 15. Semi-annual report no later than 45 days after the end of each half fiscal year of 2016. 110-181, Section 1513, as amended. Original legislation: FY1990 and FY1991 NDAA, P.L. CRS Report R44444, Security Assistance and Cooperation: Shared Responsibility of the Departments of State and Defense, by Nina M. Serafino. 127d, known as the "Global Lift and Sustain" authority. Broader, related issues that some analysts urge be considered over time include further institutional changes in DOD and the State Department to improve coordination within and between those two agencies; further evaluation of the appropriate balance for security cooperation among DOD mission and the ways in which the armed forces should be resourced and organized to balance all missions to ensure the national defense; and the appropriate balance of civilian and military resources to meet national security and foreign policy goals. Biennial comptroller audits submitted no later than March 31 of 2016, 2018, and 2020. Annual report due October 31. Some also question whether GPF are adequately trained and qualified to be effective instructors. P.L. For FY2016, Congress approved the South China Sea Initiative, which permits DOD, with Secretary of State concurrence, to provide up to $50 million in maritime security assistance for countries bordering the South China Sea. Both the House and Senate have responded to DOD proposals to reform the security cooperation enterprise. Beginning in the 1980s, Congress began to expand gradually the scope and character of the statutory framework by authorizing DOD to directly train, equip, and otherwise assist foreign military and other security forces through new provisions in annual NDAAs, some codified to Title 10 of the U.S. Code. Some of the authorities, including "Section 1033," are limited to specific geographic regions. Chief of Mission coordination is required for humanitarian and civic assistance. 2249c Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program to pay expenses of foreign forces, ministry of defense, and security official for educational and schoolhouse training activities into a Defense Cooperation Fellowship Program, which could also provide funding for personnel at international and non-governmental organizations, provided those activities do not duplicate or conflict, "to the maximum extent possible," with State Department International Military Education and Training (IMET) activities. Authorizes the Secretary of Defense to provide certain types of training in the course of multilateral exercises and pay incremental expenses up to $28 million incurred by a country as the direct result of participation in a multilateral exercise. In line with this strategy, DOD stated that counterterrorism efforts would place a stronger emphasis on building partnership capacity, especially in fragile states, while maintaining a robust capability for direct military action. See Chapter 15 for more detailed information on individual programs. $358.5 million is authorized to be available for obligation in FY2016, FY2017, and FY2018. Â. Authorizes the Secretary of Defense to assign civilian Department of Defense employees as advisors to foreign ministries of defense or security agencies serving a similar defense function to provide advice and other training and to assist in building core institutional capacity, competencies, and capabilities. The DOD role in U.S. assistance to train, equip, and otherwise support foreign military (and at times other security) forces has evolved over recent decades. These programs vary greatly in terms of the agency or DoD activity responsible and the manner in which they are planned for and funded. 107-314. 110-181. FY2016 appropriations legislation (P.L. Original legislation FY1993 NDAA, P.L. Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (P.L. Training shall include language training and programs to improve understanding of the democratic institutions and social framework of the United States. 113-291, Section 1210. For the purposes of this Manual, it is important to be able to distinguish between SC Programs and SA Programs. 2561); Foreign Disaster Relief (FDR) (10 U.S.C. The FY2017 budget estimate for OHDACA is $105 million. C1 - Security Cooperation Overview and Relationships. Yes, requires consultation with the Secretary of State for agreements with NATO members, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, ROK, and NATO subsidiary bodies. For Humanitarian and Civic Assistance, Chief of Mission coordination is required "to the extent practicable.". Section 1203) contains a concurrence requirement, but an expanded 10 U.S.C. Funding for Select DOD Security Cooperation Authorities, FY2017 Budget Estimate or Request (if available). 114-113) makes no more than $50 million available for additional costs associated with existing projects funded under AIF. FY2017 budget estimate excludes $215.3 million of OCO funding. 2557. Other concerns are that requirements for Secretary of State concurrence have been removed in some instances where they existed before. C1.3.2.7. In Africa, Congress has authorized up to $50 million for DOD, with the concurrence of the Secretary of State, to support foreign forces involved in operations against the Lord's Resistance Army.25 Another authority, adopted in the FY2016 NDAA, permits DOD, in coordination with Secretary of State, to provide up to $100 million in logistical support to allied nations conducting counterterrorism operations in Africa. Original legislation: FY1986 DDAA, P.L. 401 report (discussed above). Additional information on related security issues is covered by other CRS products: CRS Report R44313, What Is “Building Partner Capacity?” Issues for Congress, coordinated by Kathleen J. McInnis. Imagery Intelligence and Geospatial Information: Support for Foreign Countries, Regional Organizations, and Security Alliances: 10 U.S.C. Required Congressional Notifications (CN) or Reports and Recipients, Contingency Operations and Related Coalition Operational Support: Afghanistan, Iraq, Syria, Ukraine, Africa. Not all Title 10 and NDAA authorities have funding levels established by authorization and/or appropriations legislation. DOD Directive 5132.03, "DOD Policy and Responsibilities Relating to Security Cooperation," October 24, 2008. Whether additional resources would enable the State Department to have a more effective role in overseeing and collaborating in DOD security cooperation activities and applying a "whole of government" approach suggested by DOD. With the renewal of the contract by Takeda with broadened scope of cooperation, we believe this represents a significant opportunity for us to … Security risks may apply to each of these three incarnations (Buzan, 1991: 65). For additional information on the history of "Section 1206," see CRS Report RS22855, Security Assistance Reform: "Section 1206" Background and Issues for Congress, by [author name scrubbed]. All three to SASC, SFRC, SAC, HASC, HFAC, HAC. The Joint Chiefs of Staff provide implementation guidance for U.S. military plans and programs and provide the Secretary of Defense with military advice concerning SC; review, in conjunction with the USD(P), CCMD campaign plans (including SC aspects) and oversee deconfliction of the campaign plans as necessary; and collect and review the campaign plan assessments completed by the CCDRs through the Comprehensive Joint Assessment and advise the USD(P) on the effectiveness of DoD SC efforts. Report due 15 days prior to providing maintenance and sustainment support to Israel for research, development, testing, and evaluation activities. "46 Specifically, the Administration cited the potential impact of reforms on "DOD's current security cooperation and force readiness efforts" and on "the State Department's lead role in foreign policy and security sector assistance...."47 The Administration offered to work with Congress to "ensure the final legislation undertakes Administration-requested reforms in a carefully considered manner that avoids duplication of efforts and authorities, and unintended consequences for current DOD and State security sector assistance activities. Definition and Purpose. This includes contracts that support FMS cases. CDCs (SASC, HASC, SAC-D, HAC-D). They modify Global Force Management Board processes and procedures to account for force requirements for SC. Notification and reporting requirements determined by underlying authorities (10 U.S.C. Original legislation: FY2004 NDAA, P.L. Humanitarian Demining Assistance and Stockpiled Conventional Munitions Assistance: 10 U.S.C. The Director, DLA advises the Secretary of Defense on all SC matters impacting DLA and acts for the Secretary of Defense when responsibility has been delegated. 168; 10 U.S.C. Transfer authority expires September 30, 2016. What does SECURITY COOPERATION mean? Authorization or appropriations legislation does not specify funding levels for the following authorities: Participation of Developing Countries in Combined Exercises: Payment of Incremental Costs (10 U.S.C. All three above to SASC, SFRC, SAC, HASC, HFAC, HAC. 99-661. 89, no. See Robert M. Gates, "Helping Others Defense Themselves," Foreign Affairs, vol. COLOMBO (News 1st): The 4th National Security Adviser (NSA) Level Trilateral Meeting on Maritime Security Cooperation between India, the Maldives, and Sri - … FUTURE SCOPE Defense Security Cooperation Agency (DSCA). Biennial Report. No more than $15 million for nonrecurring engineering costs. Under Secretary of Defense, Personnel and Readiness (USD(P&R)). Also authorizes the Secretary of Defense to enter into nonreciprocal military airlift agreements with NATO subsidiary bodies, on terms the Secretary of Defense considers appropriate. 112-81, Section 1081, as amended. DOD may also conduct humanitarian assistance, military and government educational programs, and other initiatives to assist foreign militaries, as well as their governments and populations. 2011 statute, which would replace and repeal it, does not. Written notifications to permit assistance to countries not bordering Syria. The USD(AT&L) coordinates on SC policy guidance and campaign plans; ensures conformance with international armaments cooperation, industrial collaboration, and technology release policies; ensures that DoD logistics policy and procedures are effectively integrated with SC campaign plans and program implementation; provides advice and technical assistance to the USD(P) and the Director, DSCA, to accomplish the objectives of SC programs; in coordination with the USD(P) and the Director, DSCA, as appropriate, supports the development of technology security and foreign disclosure and sales policies and procedures for defense information, technology, and systems; establishes policies, in coordination with the USD(P), for the effective development of international acquisition, technology, and logistics programs that support current SC goals. Authorizes the Secretary of Defense to transport to any country, without charge, supplies that have been provided by nongovernmental sources and which are intended for humanitarian assistance. Congress reviews requests, authorizes and appropriates funds, and enacts necessary legislative amendments for carrying out SA programs. The FY2017 budget request for ERI is $3.4 billion. DOD humanitarian and related civic assistance also constitutes a part of some training exercises. Original legislation: FY1983 NDAA, P.L. DOD conducts the Engineers and Scientists Exchange Program (ESEP) under this authority, which involves the mutual exchange of military or civilian engineers and scientists between the U.S. and a foreign country's military RDT&E communities. seq.). The Directive on security of network and information systems (NIS Directive) is All require some State Department role. Department of Defense, National Military Strategy, 2015, p. 11. Authorizes the commander of the special operations command and commander of any other unified or specified combatant command to pay the training and some related expenses incurred by special operations forces in conjunction with training, and training with, armed forces or other security forces of a friendly foreign country. 113-66, Section 1208. For more information on this issue, see CRS Report R44444, Security Assistance and Cooperation: Shared Responsibility of the Departments of State and Defense, by [author name scrubbed]. Original legislation: FY2009 NDAA, P.L. The Wales (formerly Warsaw) Initiative Fund (WIF), established to train and equip countries engaged in the State Department-led Partnership for Peace (PfP) program, encompasses all developing NATO partners and focuses on building defense institutions. 2111b); Aviation Leadership Program (ALP) (10 U.S.C. CN submitted 15 days prior to initiation of GSCF activity. Yes (when the Center's efforts and activities involve foreign governments and militaries, and international organizations and NGOs). Not Applicable, as this is a joint DOD-State Department authority. Recovery and Accounting of Missing Personnel. As a result, ascertaining the utility of individual security assistance and cooperation programs and comparing results can be problematic. The FY2017 budget estimate is $9.2 million. Contingency Operations and Related Coalition Operational Support; Global and Regional, Non-Contingency Train and Equip, and Other Assistance; Counternarcotics, Counter-Transnational Organized Crime, and Counterproliferation; Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief; Defense Institution Building and Support; and. Up to $10 million per year may be spent to sponsor the participation of foreign countries in joint exercises. The DoS reviews and approves export license requests for direct commercial sales of items on the United States Munitions List (USML) of the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR). Authorizes the Secretary of Defense to provide assistance, including equipment, supplies, training, stipends, construction of training and associated facilities, and sustainment to appropriately vetted elements of the Syrian opposition and other appropriated vetted Syrian groups and individuals. Annual report due March 31. For additional information on the terminology associated with security assistance and security cooperation, see, Security Assistance and Cooperation: Shared Responsibility of the Departments of State and Defense. DOD stated that one of its priorities for the 21st century is establishing innovative partnerships and enhancing key alliances and partnerships. What prior training is required for embassy SCO and COCOM staff, and whether this training is sufficient or more extensive training is needed to make management and implementation more efficient. While for much of the post-9/11 period, the new Title 10 security cooperation authorities have targeted assistance at developing countries, a 2014 RAND analysis concludes that security cooperation efforts have been more effective in states that were more democratic, had stronger state institutions, and greater state capacity than in states exhibiting high levels of fragility. It also reviews EDA allocations, materiel surveys, and international agreements. CN submitted 5 days prior to obligation or to transfer of ASFF funds. Define security cooperation. All three above to CDCs (SASC, HASC, SAC-D, HAC-D). 184) by eliminating two that are located in Washington, DC (the Africa Center for Strategic Studies and the Near East South Asia Center for Strategic Studies) and deleting the geographical designations in the names of the remaining three, located in Germany, Hawaii, and Washington, DC, rewording the authority from permitting "exchanges of ideas" to "training," and assigning new regional and functional areas of focus to each. 112-239, Section 1275). 87-195, Section 622(c) (22 U.S.C. Original legislation regarding current Secretary of State role, FY1989 NDAA, P.L. 114-113) makes no more than $50 million available for additional costs associated with existing projects funded under AIF. 401); Transportation of Humanitarian Relief Supplies to Foreign Countries (10 U.S.C. C1.3.2.10. 110-161). 113-291, Section 1206). Joint Staff-Sponsored Exercise Program: 10 U.S.C. Despite a long-standing and repeatedly stated U.S. interest in assessing the effectiveness of U.S. assistance to foreign military and other security forces, the State Department and DOD are still developing metrics and assessment tools to measure progress and determine the results of such assistance over time. 2282 programs. 408). Periodic or one-time combined command post or field training exercises to be conducted by combatant commands and their component commands with foreign military forces, under the authority of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. It also discusses salient issues related to the development, implementation, sustainment, and coordination of security cooperation to support congressional oversight. 2166); Senior Military College International Student Program: (10 U.S.C. Humanitarian Assistance: 10 U.S.C. 110-181, Section 1233, as amended. See Rand, From Patchwork to Framework: A Review of Title 10 Authorities for Security Cooperation, 2016. The aggregate amount of reimbursements may not exceed $1.2 billion during FY2016. Secretary of State and Secretary of Defense shall jointly develop infrastructure projects in Afghanistan to be implemented by the Secretary of State except Secretary of Defense if jointly determined. 153. Authorizes the Secretary of the Air Force to establish an Aviation Leadership Program to provide undergraduate pilot training and related training to personnel of air forces of less developed foreign nations. 1051c); Attendance at Military Academies ((10 U.S.C. Original legislation FY2008 NDAA, P.L. ed. The State Department's congressional budget notification identifies six budget accounts that fall under "International Security Assistance." DSCA directs, administers, and provides guidance to the DoD Components and DoD representatives to U.S. missions, for the execution of DoD SC programs for which DSCA has responsibility. (The Global Security Contingency Fund was designed to replace the current agency-centric security assistance system with one that would facilitate interagency planning, budgeting, and coordination and eliminate duplication.). Authorizes the expenditure of not more than $25 million, upon a determination by a commander of a combatant command that an action is necessary in connection with a nonconventional assisted recovery effort, to establish, develop, and maintain nonconventional assisted recovery capabilities. SASC, HASC. Translation memories are created by human, but computer aligned, which might cause mistakes. 114-92, Section 1226. 421); Special Operations Forces: Training with Friendly Foreign Forces (JCETs) (10 U.S.C. Original legislation: NATO Mutual Support Act of 1979, signed into law in 1980 (P.L. CN submitted 15 days in advance prior to obligation of funds. 2. Annual report due no later than 60 days after the end of each fiscal year in which the Secretary of the Air Force operates the Academy. Department of Defense, Quadrennial Defense Review, 2010, pp. 15 day advance written certification for fiscal year; 15 day advance CN; counter-drug plan submitted 60 days in advance each fiscal year in which support is provided. U.S. support for the participation of foreign forces in "combined" exercises involving U.S. and foreign forces requires congressional authorization, unless training is conducted for familiarization, interoperability, or safety.32, Some laws authorize combined military exercises undertaken by combatant commanders and their component commands on a one-time or periodic basis. Also authorizes the Secretary to prevent the proliferation of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons, components, and related materials, technology, and expertise, as well as of weapons of mass destruction-related materials. 110-181, Section 1234, as amended. Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA). Annual report due March 1. "10 Security cooperation efforts, however, remained "constrained by a complex patchwork of authorities, persistent shortfalls in resources, unwieldy process, and a limited ability to sustain such undertakings beyond a short period. 106-65. Original legislation: FY2002 NDAA, P.L. CN submitted 15 days prior to providing assistance. DOD’s role supporting foreign military and other security forces has evolved over recent decades. Table A-2. 113-291, Sections 1301-1352. Executive Orders for Security Assistance. A second would extend current 10 U.S.C. 4344(a)(1); 10 U.S.C. Report submitted 15 days before obligation of funds; CN submitted 15 days before use of funds for unspecified purposes; CN submitted 15 days before obligation or expenditure of funds in excess of authorized amount; CN submitted no later than 30 days after Secretary of Defense directs on-site manger to resume U.S. participation in a project; annual certifications on use of facilities being constructed for CTR projects due first Monday in February of a year. Annual report due December 1st of each year. (Security cooperation programs under Section 1206/10 U.S.C. References in legislation to "Congressional defense committees" mean SASC, HASC, and the defense subcommittees of SAC and HAC, abbreviated in the table as CDCs (SASC, HASC, SAC-D, HAC-D). Support of Foreign Forces Participating in Operations to Disarm the Lord's Resistance Army: FY2014 NDAA, P.L. "14, As efforts to implement PPD-23 unfolded, DOD stressed in the 2014 QDR the continuing importance of security cooperation programs. 113-66. They assist the USD(AT&L) and the Director, DSCA, as requested, in government-to-government or interdepartmental discussions or negotiations involving SC. 1051c. 401. 2342); Cooperative Military Airlift Agreements: Allied Countries: (10 U.S.C. Original legislation FY1995 NDAA, P.L. 111-84, Section 1207, as amended. These services are provided in connection with negotiation, administration, and settlement of contracts and subcontracts. CDCs (SASC, HASC, SAC-D, HAC-D), SFRC, HFAC. Most of the general-purpose This includes contracts that support FMS cases. Information and translations of SECURITY COOPERATION in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. The Center provides and facilitates education, training, and research in civil-military operations, particularly operations that require international disaster management and humanitarian assistance and operations that require coordination between the Department of Defense and other agencies. SC comprises all activities undertaken by the Department of Defense (DoD) to encourage and enable international partners to work with the United States to achieve strategic objectives. Report due no later than 30 days after obligations or expenditures of funds. Proposed reforms have ranged from narrow to broad.33 One set of options would involve simplifying the framework by consolidating current authorities into one or more broader authorities in an effort to better align resources with DOD strategic priorities. "1004" Additional Support for Counter-Drug Activities and Activities to Counter Transnational Organized Crime: FY1991 NDAA, P.L. Yes (Secretary of Defense in consultation with Secretary of State to ensure specific conditions are met.). No amounts may be transferred from the Counterterrorism Partnerships Fund after December 31, 2016. See CJCSI 4110.01E. All three reports above to SASC, SFRC, SAC, HASC, HFAC, HAC, Senate and House leadership. C1.3.2.6. For example, the temporary authority for General Purpose Forces to train with foreign forces (. security cooperation synonyms, security cooperation pronunciation, security cooperation translation, English dictionary definition of security cooperation. 2557 stands for Department of Defense Authorization Act, the title given that year to the NDAA legislation. Expires Dec. 31, 2016. DOD funds six Regional Centers for Security Studies, which provide a venue for instruction and discussion among foreign military and civilian defense officials on regional and global security challenges and strengthening defense institutions. Report due no later than 90 days after authority is first exercised and 60 days after the end of a fiscal year in which it is exercised. 101-510, Section 1004, as amended); "1022" Joint Task Forces Support to Law Enforcement Agencies to Counter Transnational Organized Crime and Counter-Terrorism (FY2004 NDAA, P.L. Legislative Authorities for Security Cooperation (SC). 114-92, Section 1279. Other authorities permit narrow, targeted support related to building partner capacity (e.g., cryptologic or imagery support).27. OHDACA supports 10 U.S.C. requiring assessment, monitoring, and evaluation of DOD security cooperation programs and activities, and annual consolidated reporting on security cooperation programs, activities, and performance; consolidating responsibility for the oversight of strategic guidance and for overall resource allocation for DOD security cooperation programs and activities to a single Office of the Secretary of Defense office at a Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense level or below; integrating security cooperation funding streams into one Security Cooperation Enhancement Fund (SCEF), and requiring an annual consolidated DOD security cooperation budget; requiring the Secretaries of Defense and State to jointly issue regulations to facilitate and streamline coordination between their departments on all matters relating to the policy, planning, and implementation of security cooperation and assistance programs and activities; and. Original legislation: FY2007 NDAA, P.L. Regional Centers for Security Studies (RCSS): 10 U.S.C. Authorizes the administration of DOD Regional Centers for Security Studies for bilateral and multilateral research, communications, and exchange of ideas involving military and civilian participants. Mandates DOD compliance with "all applicable requirements for coordination and consultation within the Executive Branch.". Other organizations have adopted different counting methodologies and, as a result, have identified a larger number of authorities. The second provides a snapshot of current authorized and/or appropriated funding levels for select security cooperation authorities. Unlike the House, which proposed minimal changes, codifying existing authorities to the new chapter, the Senate offers several innovations. Report assessing previous programs due no later than 180 days after enactment. Authorizes a joint task force of DOD that provides support to law enforcement agencies conducting counter-drug activities to also provide support to law enforcement agencies conducting counterterrorism or counter-transnational organized crime activities. Since 2013, Egypt has been strengthening its naval power: this particularly regards the strategic direction of the Red Sea. For additional information on the terminology associated with security assistance and security cooperation, see CRS Report R44444, Security Assistance and Cooperation: Shared Responsibility of the Departments of State and Defense, by [author name scrubbed]. Other DoD regulations and manuals that cover specific program details relating to SC are referenced throughout this Manual. We determined whether the Defense Security Cooperation Agency (DSCA)—Security Assistance Accounts (SAA) September 30, 2017, balance sheet was accurate and whether the DSCA and Defense Finance and Accounting Service (DFAS) implemented effective controls over financial reporting for the SAAs. Two tables in the appendix provide information on current Title 10 security cooperation authorities. See DoD Directive 5105.65. Following the September 11th attacks, U.S. government periodic planning documents indicated that the changing security environment presented a new set of challenges.7 Instead of combating nation-states, the U.S. military would increasingly face networks of non-state actors in areas where the United States was not necessarily conducting combat operations. To achieve success in these areas, successive Administrations judged that countering decentralized networks of violent extremists would require long, complex operations involving the U.S. military, other government agencies, and international partners.8 Accordingly, many in DOD and elsewhere maintained that the U.S. military needed to adopt an indirect approach that increased partner capacity (better known by the term "building partner capacity," or BPC) for a variety of purposes, to include: the more effective prosecution of counterterrorism operations, increasing the capacity of states to manage their own regional security challenges in order to prevent an eventual U.S. or international crisis intervention, and as an exit strategy for post-9/11 military campaigns.9 To implement such concepts, DOD requested that Congress grant new authorities to build the capabilities of partner nations and enhance interoperability with U.S. forces, some of which Congress granted.Â, As Congress provided DOD with more authority to address such emerging challenges, however, DOD identified statutory and institutional challenges in the development and implementation of programs authorized by the growing number of security cooperation authorities. DOD counterdrug authorities were among the first Title 10 security cooperation authorities. Assist in Accounting for Missing USG Personnel: 10 U.S.C. The degree to which the effectiveness of DOD-State collaboration depends on the quality of informal working relationships between DOD and State personnel versus mechanisms established by policy or law, and whether establishing formal mechanisms that govern collaboration might improve DOD-State cooperation across COCOMs. CDCs (SASC, HASC, SAC-D, HAC-D). threat to or attempt against their security; Convinced of the need to exert efforts to make détente both a continuing and an increasingly viable and comprehensive process, universal in scope, and that the implementation of the results of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe will be a major contribution to this process; Identify any inconsistencies between these regulations and this Manual to DSCA (Strategy, Plans, and Policy Directorate (SPP)) for resolution. 168; 10 U.S.C. 374. Authority to Conduct Activities to Enhance the Capabilities of Foreign Countries to Respond to Incidents Involving Weapons of Mass Destruction: FY2014 NDAA, P.L. SASC, SFRC, SAC, HASC, HFAC, HAC. Quarterly report no later than 90 days after transfers begin and at end of each calendar quarter thereafter through March 31, 2017. 2010. In a fiscal environment calling for increased austerity, DOD concluded that employing partnerships and innovative approaches, such as security cooperation activities, would continue to be an integral part of maintaining U.S. global leadership.15, Since the last QDR, challenges that have arisen from Russia and China are shifting attention toward building partner capacity to meet threats in addition to counterterrorism. A few permitted uses are related to foreign assistance. CTE TEKS - Implemented 2017-2018, adopted in 2015 Principles of Law, Public Safety, Corrections, and Security course scope and sequence within the Law, Public Safety, Corrections, and Security Career Cluster® summarizes the content to be taught, and one possible order for teaching the units of … 2350d); Administration of the American, British, Canadian and Australian Armies' Program (FY2013 NDAA, P.L. DOD humanitarian assistance is provided not only in response to crises, but also as an operational aid to gain goodwill, increase situational awareness, or deter conflict. creating a "Department of Defense Security Cooperation Workforce Development Program" to oversee the development and management of a professional workforce supporting DOD security cooperation programs and activities. Annual report due December 31 of year in which the authority is in effect. 2111b. In the second session of the 114th Congress, the Obama Administration, the House, and the Senate have offered proposals (see text above) to modify DOD security cooperation authorities. Authorization or appropriations legislation does not specify funding levels for the following authorities: Payment of Expenses to Attend Bilateral, Multilateral, or Regional Cooperation Programs (10 U.S.C. Preview Of Subsequent Chapters ... Manual (SAMM), DSCA 5105.38-M, particularly Chapter 16, Case Reconciliation and … 101-189. The number of authorities identified by CRS is derived from the DOD security cooperation programs catalogued in the current DISAM Security Cooperation Programs handbook. Some institutions, such as NATO, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) and the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), are explicitly and primarily security organizations. Additional authorities permit reciprocal or nonreciprocal exchanges of U.S. and foreign defense personnel. Some analysts expect that a variety of security cooperation activities will accompany BPC efforts in Europe and the Pacific in the coming years. All to SASC, SFRC, HASC, HFAC. Research and Development Projects: 10 U.S.C. Those SA programs that are administered by DoD are a subset of SC. Authorizes the Secretary of Defense to establish a program to facilitate the enrollment and instruction of persons from foreign countries as international students at the senior military colleges. Original legislation: FY1995 NDAA, P.L. Moreover, the governor of the Red Sea governorate is a military general, as most of the provincial governors. Quarterly reports on equipment disposition submitted no later than 90 days after enactment of NDAA FY2016. These include building capacity for operations to counter weapons of mass destruction, drugs, and transnational crime, and to conduct maritime and border security, military intelligence, humanitarian disaster assistance operations, and national territorial defense operations. Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program: 10 U.S.C. RAND, Review of Security Cooperation Mechanisms Combatant Commands Utilize to Build Partner Capacity, 2013, p. 69. SASC, SFRC, HASC, HFAC. "12 Similarly, the 2011 National Military Strategy (NMS) concluded that to improve the effectiveness of security assistance, comprehensive reform was needed, including "more flexible resources" and "less cumbersome processes. Although some analysts fault the system as responsible for coordination lapses and other implementation problems, others argue that a lack of adequate staffing and training is at least as responsible for those difficulties. Plan on intended management and use of CTPF no later than 60 days after enactment of FY2015 NDAA. See The White House, National Security Strategy of the United States of America, 2002; Department of Defense, Quadrennial Defense Review, 2006; Department of Defense, National Military Strategic Plan for the War on Terrorism, 2006; Department of Defense, Quadrennial Defense Review, 2010; Department of Defense, National Military Strategy, 2011. Three are logistics support authorities, one of which requires Secretary of State concurrence, and two of which do not require State Department input. Some authorize tuition waivers or payment of expenses incurred by foreign military personnel participating in education and exchange activities. 113-66, Section 1204. Authorizes the Secretary of Defense to carry out unspecified minor military construction projects, up to $3 million, in support of a combined exercise not otherwise authorized by law, with an amount equal to 125% of the amount authorized by law for such purpose. RAND recommends that DOD request authority to lengthen the time period for certain Title 10 security cooperation authorities and funding to a minimum of three years "to enable effective institutionalization of capabilities.". Original legislation: Military Construction Codification Act of 1982, P.L. Participation in Multinational Military Centers of Excellence: 10 U.S.C. Definition of SECURITY COOPERATION in the Definitions.net dictionary. The primary purpose of the training is to train U.S. Special Operations Forces. As funding levels for security cooperation activities have risen in recent years, questions about the effectiveness of security cooperation efforts have increasingly been accompanied by the related question of whether the United States appropriately aligns security cooperation resources with its strategic priorities.39 Those who argue that the current allocation of resources does not align with strategic needs advocate several measures to ensure a better match. Transfer of Defense Articles and Services to Military and Security Forces of Afghanistan: FY2013 NDAA, P.L. See DoD Directive 5118.05. C1.1.2.2. 2314) prior to most grant transfers of defense articles. Gordon Adams and Shoon Murray (Washington, DC: The Georgetown University Press, 2014), pp. Yes, as mandated by 10 U.S.C. C1.2. A new authority, adopted in the FY2016 NDAA, permits DOD to provide training, equipment, and logistical support to Ukraine's military and security forces, in coordination with the Secretary of State. Report submitted 30 days prior to exercising authority for certain payments to redress authority and loss in Iraq. 2282), as "a means to fill long-standing gaps in an effort to help other nations build and sustain capable military forces. 9381-9383. [author name scrubbed], Research Assistant Although it recently expired, the Afghanistan Infrastructure Fund (AIF), a joint DOD-State Department authority, allowed the two departments to develop and implement infrastructure projects jointly. CN submitted 15 days prior to exercising authority or no later than 48 hours if extraordinary circumstances exist. CDCs (SASC, HASC, SAC-D, HAC-D). Prior to the adoption of the FAA, such assistance was provided under Mutual Security Act legislation, for which the President generally assigned oversight responsibility to the Secretary of State. "Biennial Report" means the report on programs carried out by the DOD to provide training, equipment, or other assistance or reimbursement to foreign security forces required by the FY2015 NDAA, P.L. 2249d); Non-Reciprocal Exchange of Defense Personnel (FY2010 NDAA, P.L. The USD(P&R) assists the Director, DSCA and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff by developing and coordinating relevant input on SCO joint manpower programs involving the establishment of new SCO or changes in SCO manpower authorizations, organizational structure, or the grade, rank, or MILDEP affiliation of the Chief of the SCO; coordinates efforts to build regional, cultural, and language expertise among U.S. forces, including DoD international military and civilian personnel exchange programs, with the USD(P); and identifies, tracks, and assesses readiness of personnel with regional, cultural, and language expertise. Secretary of State approval required for the conduct of an activity in a foreign country. Although in some cases DOD conducts entire programs under one authority, in many others DOD must draw on multiple authorities to conduct a single program. Secretary of Defense designates eligible non-NATO countries in consultation with the Secretary of State. Unpredictability in program execution due to program delays or cancellations caused by inconsistent requirements for State Department input among the various authorities, and thus the need to coordinate with multiple offices, possibly with different response times. One requires Secretary of State concurrence and authorizes DOD to transfer U.S. non-excess defense articles and related services up to $250 million in replacement value to Afghanistan's military and security forces. SASC, HASC. They come from many sources and are not checked. C1.3.2.4. 99-570).]. In addition, the NMS called for the adoption of authorities that would allow for a "pooled-resources approach" and encourage "complementary efforts across departments and programs, integrating defense, diplomacy, development, law enforcement, and intelligence capacity-building activities." Authorizes the Secretary of Defense to operate a Center for Excellence in Disaster Management and Humanitarian Assistance. Original legislation: FY2001 NDAA, P.L. Difficulty aligning and allocating resources towards the full range of DOD strategic priorities. No more than $900 million of the aggregate amount of reimbursements may be used for Pakistan in FY2016. In addition, broader DOD authority might affect requirements for State Department oversight and coordination. Legislative Authorities for Security Cooperation (SC). Congress has provided DOD with two authorities that permit information-sharing and cooperative research with other countries and organizations, related to weapons systems. 1050a. Global and Regional, Non-Contingency Train and Equip, and Other Assistance.

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