[15] A short burst of high speed wind is termed a wind gust, one technical definition of a wind gust is: the maxima that exceed the lowest wind speed measured during a ten-minute time interval by 10 knots (5 m/s) for periods of seconds. The kinetic energy of a packet of air of mass m with velocity v is given by ½ m v2. Special wind and weather forecasts for windsurfing, kitesurfing and other wind related sports. The ancient Greeks also observed the seasonal change of the winds, as evidenced by the Tower of the Winds in Athens. In Europe, similar winds are known as the Bora, Tramontane, and Mistral. Wind engineering describes the study of the effects of the wind on the built environment, including buildings, bridges and other man-made objects. SYNOP codes from weather stations and buoys. Wind speeds during downslope wind effect can exceed 160 kilometers per hour (99 mph).[58]. Wind turbines allow us to harness the power of the wind and turn it into energy. Globally, the two major driving factors of large-scale wind patterns (the atmospheric circulation) are the differential heating between the equator and the poles (difference in absorption of solar energy leading to buoyancy forces) and the rotation of the planet. Infrequent wind gusts can cause poorly designed suspension bridges to sway. [79], Kamikaze (神風) is a Japanese word, usually translated as divine wind, believed to be a gift from the gods. Hills and valleys substantially distort the airflow by increasing friction between the atmosphere and landmass by acting as a physical block to the flow, deflecting the wind parallel to the range just upstream of the topography, which is known as a barrier jet. Sign up for a $55/mo. CanWEA is the voice of Canada’s wind energy industry, actively promoting the responsible and sustainable growth of wind energy. So, we find that the total wind energy is: Differentiating with respect to time to find the rate of increase of energy, we find that the total wind power is: Wind power is thus proportional to the third power of the wind velocity. Modern commercial wind turbines produce electricity by using rotational energy to drive an electrical generator. [113] Dust events have been linked to a decline in the health of coral reefs across the Caribbean and Florida, primarily since the 1970s. “Wind.” Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/wind. As the glider descends through the wind gradient on final approach to landing, airspeed decreases while sink rate increases, and there is insufficient time to accelerate prior to ground contact. Wind power is a popular sustainable, renewable source of power that has a much smaller impact on the environment compared to burning fossil fuels. Romance and adventure happen during the America's Cup series of yachting races. It was the first wind farm over 100MW to be built in the Dutch North Sea and comprises 36 wind turbines that produce enough renewable electricity for more than 100,000 Dutch households. The cooler air above the sea, now with higher sea level pressure, flows inland into the lower pressure, creating a cooler breeze near the coast. [91] A severe storm could lead to shipwreck, and the loss of all hands. This triggers the main shaft of the wind turbine, connected to a gearbox within the nacelle, to spin. [103] When landing, wind shear is also a hazard, particularly when the winds are strong. On the surface of the Earth, wind consists of the bulk movement of air. before the 12th century, in the meaning defined at sense 1a, 15th century, in the meaning defined at transitive sense 2, before the 12th century, in the meaning defined at transitive sense 1a, 14th century, in the meaning defined at sense 4, 1586, in the meaning defined at transitive sense 1, Middle English, from Old English; akin to Old High German wint wind, Latin ventus, Greek aēnai to blow, Sanskrit vāti it blows, Middle English, from Old English windan to twist, move with speed or force, brandish; akin to Old High German wintan to wind, Umbrian ohavendu let him turn aside. Outside the tropics and aloft from frictional effects of the surface, the large-scale winds tend to approach geostrophic balance. Their cerci are very sensitive to the wind, and help them survive half of their attacks. Long-duration winds have various names associated with their average strength, such as breeze, gale, storm, and hurricane. Offshore US (in development) [126], Wind can also cause plants damage through sand abrasion. [98] The first practical windmills were later built in Sistan, Afghanistan, from the 7th century CE. [50] Wind direction also changes because of the contour of the land. The United States reports winds over a 1‑minute average for tropical cyclones,[12] and a 2‑minute average within weather observations. Over long periods of time, the planetary wind can radically change the composition of planetary atmospheres. wind up definition: 1. to find yourself in an unexpected and usually unpleasant situation, especially as a result of…. [111] Over 50% of the African dust that reaches the United States affects Florida. In New Zealand, they are known as the Nor'west arch, and are accompanied by the cloud formation they are named after that has inspired artwork over the years. Hot air balloons use the wind to take short trips, and powered flight uses it to increase lift and reduce fuel consumption. Color-coded maps are prepared for a particular area are described as, for example, "mean annual power density at 50 meters". If the wind gradient is significant or sudden, or both, and the pilot maintains the same pitch attitude, the indicated airspeed will increase, possibly exceeding the maximum ground launch tow speed. Each day, around the world, wind turbines are capturing the wind’s power and converting it to electricity. Wind, waves & weather forecast Shearwater/Halifax / Nova Scotia, Canada for kitesurfing, windsurfing, surfing & sailing [114] Similar dust plumes originate in the Gobi Desert, which combined with pollutants, spread large distances downwind, or eastward, into North America. [4] The ageostrophic wind component is the difference between actual and geostrophic wind, which is responsible for air "filling up" cyclones over time. This is most likely on windward slopes of mountains, with severe cases generally occurring to tree stands that are 75 years or older. The term was first used in English in India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and neighboring countries to refer to the big seasonal winds blowing from the Indian Ocean and Arabian Sea in the southwest bringing heavy rainfall to the area. The Wind River is the upper course of the Bighorn River. Cognate with Dutch wind, German Wind, West Frisian wyn, Norwegian … The limits of the range are known as the cut-in speed and cut-out speed. Below is a summary of the classifications used by Regional Specialized Meteorological Centers worldwide: The Enhanced Fujita Scale (EF Scale) rates the strength of tornadoes in the United States by using damage to estimate wind speed. “Wind gusts may approach or exceed 110 km/h in wind-prone areas.” In southwestern Alberta, Environment Canada said wind gusts as high as 120 km/h are expected in some areas. The pilot must anticipate the wind gradient and use a higher approach speed to compensate for it.[104]. [78][79] The Greek wind gods include Boreas, Notus, Eurus, and Zephyrus. [99] Made of six to twelve sails covered in reed matting or cloth material, these windmills were used to grind corn and draw up water, and were used in the gristmilling and sugarcane industries. Winds of this strength due to downsloped winds off terrain have been known to shatter windows and sandblast paint from cars. "[87], There are many different forms of sailing ships, but they all have certain basic things in common. This temperature change causes the daytime sea breeze to dissipate. This is called deflation. The wind is strong around skyscrapers. Within the Beaufort scale, gale-force winds lie between 28 knots (52 km/h) and 55 knots (102 km/h) with preceding adjectives such as moderate, fresh, strong, and whole used to differentiate the wind's strength within the gale category. A rudimentary windmill was used to power an organ in the first century CE. Wind powers the voyages of sailing ships across Earth's oceans. … Wind dispersal can take on one of two primary forms: seeds can float on the breeze or alternatively, they can flutter to the ground. Unlike the Westerlies, these prevailing winds blow from the east to the west, and are often weak and irregular. [168], Theoretical power captured by a wind turbine, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. In mountainous parts of the world subjected to relatively consistent winds (for example, the trade winds), a more moist climate usually prevails on the windward side of a mountain than on the leeward or downwind side. The two main causes of large-scale atmospheric circulation are the differential heating between the equator and the poles, and the rotation of the planet (Coriolis effect). To determine winds aloft, rawinsondes determine wind speed by GPS, radio navigation, or radar tracking of the probe. Historically, the Beaufort wind force scale (created by Beaufort) provides an empirical description of wind speed based on observed sea conditions. [163][164][165] At the cloud tops of Neptune, prevailing winds range in speed from 400 meters per second (890 mph) along the equator to 250 meters per second (560 mph) at the poles. Wind is the movement of air from an area of high pressure to an area of low pressure. [46] As the temperature of the surface of the land rises, the land heats the air above it by conduction. Windup definition is - the act of bringing to an end. Zephyr, also poetical, … [140] Wind speeds as low as 23 knots (43 km/h) can lead to power outages due to tree branches disrupting the flow of energy through power lines. [102], Wind figures prominently in several popular sports, including recreational hang gliding, hot air ballooning, kite flying, snowkiting, kite landboarding, kite surfing, paragliding, sailing, and windsurfing. [146] United States wildfire operations revolve around a 24-hour fire day that begins at 10:00 a.m. because of the predictable increase in intensity resulting from the daytime warmth.[147]. A new theory on how water vapor condensation influences atmospheric pressure and dynamics", Federal Meteorological Handbook No. The stream of particles varies in temperature and speed with the passage of time. The strongest observed winds on a planet in the [58] Once winds exceed 135 knots (250 km/h), homes completely collapse, and significant damage is done to larger buildings. [51] Cool winds accelerating through mountain gaps have been given regional names. Below is the scale. Another word for wind. It consists mostly of electrons and protons with energies of about 1 keV. [20] The terminology for tropical cyclones differs from one region to another globally. [144] The most powerful gusts of wind on Earth were created by nuclear detonations. Wind gradient can have a noticeable effect on ground launches, also known as winch launches or wire launches. When a high measurement frequency is needed (such as in research applications), wind can be measured by the propagation speed of ultrasound signals or by the effect of ventilation on the resistance of a heated wire. First, wind causes small particles to be lifted and therefore moved to another region. Wind erosion generally occurs in areas with little or no vegetation, often in areas where there is insufficient rainfall to support vegetation. Examples of these parts are balconies, ventilation openings, roof openings or cables. From Middle English winde, wind, from Old English wind (“wind”), from Proto-Germanic *windaz, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂wéh₁n̥tos (“wind”), from earlier *h₂wéh₁n̥ts (“wind”), derived from the present participle of *h₂weh₁- (“to blow”). A related process to anemochory is anemophily, which is the process where pollen is distributed by wind. These particles are able to escape the sun's gravity, in part because of the high temperature of the corona,[152] but also because of high kinetic energy that particles gain through a process that is not well understood. Many of the Earth's deserts lie near the average latitude of the subtropical ridge, where descent reduces the relative humidity of the air mass. To find the mass of the packet passing through an area A perpendicular its velocity (which could be the rotor area of a turbine), we multiply its volume after time t has passed with the air density ρ, which gives us m = A v t ρ. [145] Sunlight warms the ground during the day and causes air currents to travel uphill, and downhill during the night as the land cools. [162] On Uranus, northern hemisphere wind speeds reach as high as 240 meters per second (540 mph) near 50 degrees north latitude. [150] Additionally, planets with hotter lower atmospheres could accelerate the loss rate of hydrogen. [137] Increases in wind above 15 kilometers per hour (9.3 mph) signals glaucous gulls to increase their foraging and aerial attacks on thick-billed murres.[138]. A relation between the input and output wind velocity must be considered. Our Word of the Year 'pandemic,' plus 11 more. Loess often stands in either steep or vertical faces. [16] Alternatively, movement of the parent weather balloon position can be tracked from the ground visually using theodolites. He is said to be the ancestor (grandfather) of the winds of the eight directions. Large families of plants are pollinated in this manner, which is favored when individuals of the dominant plant species are spaced closely together. How to use wind in a sentence. Harnessing the unequaled wind resources off the coast of Maine is critical to meet the state’s climate goals of moving Maine to using 80 percent renewable energy by 2030, and 100 percent by 2050, in order to curb harmful greenhouse gas emissions. 'Cease' vs. 'Seize': Explaining the Difference. For example, a northerly wind blows from the north to the south. [110] Loess deposits are geologically unstable by nature, and will erode very readily. When dust from the Sahara moving around the southern periphery of the ridge within the belt of trade winds moves over land, rainfall is suppressed and the sky changes from a blue to a white appearance, which leads to an increase in red sunsets. [153] Planets require large magnetic fields in order to reduce the ionization of their upper atmosphere by the solar wind. wind noun (CURRENT OF AIR) A1 [ C or U ] a current of air moving approximately horizontally, especially one strong enough to be felt: There isn't enough wind to fly a kite. [130] Flying insects, a subset of arthropods, are swept along by the prevailing winds,[131] while birds follow their own course taking advantage of wind conditions, in order to either fly or glide. [9] Wind speed is measured by anemometers, most commonly using rotating cups or propellers. [68], Sound movement through the atmosphere is affected by wind shear, which can bend the wave front, causing sounds to be heard where they normally would not, or vice versa. [85] During Napoleon's Egyptian Campaign, the French soldiers had a hard time with the khamsin wind: when the storm appeared "as a blood-stint in the distant sky", the Ottomans went to take cover, while the French "did not react until it was too late, then choked and fainted in the blinding, suffocating walls of dust". Erosion can be the result of material movement by the wind. Westerly winds in the mid-latitudes of the planet drive the movement of ocean currents from west to east across the world's oceans. [60] Although wind produced only about 1.5% of worldwide electricity use in 2009,[60] it is growing rapidly, having doubled in the three years between 2005 and 2008. When a difference in atmospheric pressure exists, air moves from the higher to the lower pressure area, resulting in winds of various speeds. A supernatural thriller set in the Western frontier of the late 1800s, The Wind stars Caitlin Gerard (INSIDIOUS: THE LAST KEY) as a plains-woman driven mad by the harshness and isolation of the untamed land. Australia's Barrow Island holds the record for the strongest wind gust, reaching 408 km/h (253 mph) during tropical cyclone Olivia on 10 April 1996, surpassing the previous record of 372 km/h (231 mph) set on Mount Washington (New Hampshire) on the afternoon of 12 April 1934. An important constraint on wind dispersal is the need for abundant seed production to maximize the likelihood of a seed landing in a site suitable for germination. [97] The furnaces were constructed on the path of the monsoon winds to exploit the wind power, to bring the temperatures inside up to 1,200 °C (2,190 °F). The fastest wind ever recorded is coming from the accretion disc of the IGR J17091-3624 black hole. [156], Strong 300 kilometers per hour (190 mph) winds at Venus's cloud tops circle the planet every four to five earth days. The wind is caused by differences in atmospheric pressure. [166] At 70° S latitude on Neptune, a high-speed jet stream travels at a speed of 300 meters per second (670 mph). While taking off with a tailwind may be necessary under certain circumstances, a headwind is generally desirable. Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorology. Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free! Learn a new word every day. [30] They are strongest in the winter when the pressure is lower over the poles, and weakest during the summer and when pressures are higher over the poles.[39]. Test Your Knowledge - and learn some interesting things along the way. In a realistic wind turbine, this is impossible, as the captured air must also leave the turbine. The trade winds (also called trades) are the prevailing pattern of easterly surface winds found in the tropics towards the Earth's equator. [6], Wind direction is usually expressed in terms of the direction from which it originates. [57] In California, downslope winds are funneled through mountain passes, which intensify their effect, and examples include the Santa Ana and sundowner winds. Wind causes the generation of sound. Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale. [128], Cattle and sheep are prone to wind chill caused by a combination of wind and cold temperatures, when winds exceed 40 kilometers per hour (25 mph), rendering their hair and wool coverings ineffective. Forecasts for any location on planet Earth! The warm air is less dense than the surrounding environment and so it rises. Updated every three hours. When these winds blow over open waters, they increase mixing of the upper layers of the ocean that elevates cool, nutrient rich waters to the surface, which leads to increased marine life. wind phrase. The wind barb shows the speed using "flags" on the end. [19] A storm has winds of 56 knots (104 km/h) to 63 knots (117 km/h). Winds are depicted as blowing from the direction the barb is facing. The direction from which a movement of air comes: The wind is north-northwest. In outer space, solar wind is the movement of gases or charged particles from the Sun through space, while planetary wind is the outgassing of light chemical elements from a planet's atmosphere into space. Ex : garçon - nm > On dira "le garçon" ou "un garçon". The blast wave is similar to a strong wind gust over the ground. [107] Loess is a homogeneous, typically nonstratified, porous, friable, slightly coherent, often calcareous, fine-grained, silty, pale yellow or buff, windblown (Aeolian) sediment. Learn more. (moving air) vent nm nom masculin: s'utilise avec les articles "le", "l'" (devant une voyelle ou un h muet), "un". Orographic precipitation occurs on the windward side of mountains and is caused by the rising air motion of a large-scale flow of moist air across the mountain ridge, also known as upslope flow, resulting in adiabatic cooling and condensation. They are useful for simplifying the atmospheric equations of motion and for making qualitative arguments about the horizontal and vertical distribution of winds. In several countries it has achieved relatively high levels of penetration, accounting for approximately 19% of electricity production in Denmark, 10% in Spain and Portugal, and 7% in Germany and the Republic of Ireland in 2008. [129] Although penguins use both a layer of fat and feathers to help guard against coldness in both water and air, their flippers and feet are less immune to the cold. [47], Over elevated surfaces, heating of the ground exceeds the heating of the surrounding air at the same altitude above sea level, creating an associated thermal low over the terrain and enhancing any thermal lows that would have otherwise existed,[48][49] and changing the wind circulation of the region. On the surface of the Earth, wind consists of the bulk movement of air. A national non-profit association, CanWEA serves as Canada’s leading source of credible information about wind energy and its social, economic and environmental benefits. An example is the formation of sand dunes, on a beach or in a desert. This may be caused by the wind blowing over cavities, or by vortices created in the air downstream of an object. Can you spell these 10 commonly misspelled words? 'All Intensive Purposes' or 'All Intents and Purposes'? During strong thunderstorms, straight line wind speeds can exceed 100 mph. [28] The strongest winds are in the mid-latitudes where cold polar air meets warm air from the tropics. [141] While no species of tree is guaranteed to stand up to hurricane-force winds, those with shallow roots are more prone to uproot, and brittle trees such as eucalyptus, sea hibiscus, and avocado are more prone to damage. Its speed is 20,000,000 miles per hour (32,000,000 km/h), which is 3% of the speed of light. Using the concept of stream tube, the maximal achievable extraction of wind power by a wind turbine is 16/27 ≈ 59% of the total theoretical wind power[27] (see: Betz' law). It is commonly observed near microbursts and downbursts caused by thunderstorms,[68] weather fronts, areas of locally higher low level winds referred to as low level jets, near mountains,[69] radiation inversions that occur because of clear skies and calm winds, buildings,[70] wind turbines,[71] and sailboats. Sustained wind speeds are reported globally at a 10 meters (33 ft) height and are averaged over a 10‑minute time frame. Note: The Saffir–Simpson scale and Enhanced Fujita scale were designed to help estimate wind speed from the damage caused by high winds related to tropical cyclones and tornadoes, and vice versa.[143][22]. Strong winds will pick up loose sand and topsoil and hurl it through the air at speeds ranging from 25 miles per hour (40 km/h) to 40 miles per hour (64 km/h). Its presence negatively impacts air quality by adding to the count of airborne particulates. The film is directed by Emma Tammi, written by Teresa Sutherland and stars Gerard, Ashley Zukerman, and Julia Goldani Telles. [8] At airports, windsocks indicate wind direction, and can also be used to estimate wind speed by the angle of hang. The energy that drives wind originates with the sun, which heats the Earth unevenly, creating warm spots and cool spots. The solar wind is quite different from a terrestrial wind, in that its origin is the sun, and it is composed of charged particles that have escaped the sun's atmosphere. [151], Rather than air, the solar wind is a stream of charged particles—a plasma—ejected from the upper atmosphere of the sun at a rate of 400 kilometers per second (890,000 mph). Wind has a very important role in aiding plants and other immobile organisms in dispersal of seeds, spores, pollen, etc. On a rotating planet, air will also be deflected by the Coriolis effect, except exactly on the equator. In arid climates, the main source of erosion is wind. A brief treatment of winds follows. Definitions by the largest Idiom Dictionary. [79] There are also four dvärgar (Norse dwarves), named Norðri, Suðri, Austri and Vestri, and probably the four stags of Yggdrasil, personify the four winds, and parallel the four Greek wind gods. Roofs severely stripped; mobile homes overturned or badly damaged; loss of exterior doors; windows and other glass broken. [100] Horizontal-axle windmills were later used extensively in Northwestern Europe to grind flour beginning in the 1180s, and many Dutch windmills still exist. [135] Cockroaches use slight winds that precede the attacks of potential predators, such as toads, to survive their encounters. Winds have various aspects: velocity (wind speed); the density of the gas involved; energy content or wind energy. Although wind is not the primary form of seed dispersal in plants, it provides dispersal for a large percentage of the biomass of land plants. Moisture is removed by orographic lift, leaving drier air on the descending and generally warming, leeward side where a rain shadow is observed. Turbines are designed to operate within a specific range of wind speeds. 'Nip it in the butt' or 'Nip it in the bud'? [13] India typically reports winds over a 3‑minute average. [167] The fastest wind on any known planet is on HD 80606 b located 190 light years away, where it blows at more than 11,000 mph or 5 km/s. [63], Wind shear, sometimes referred to as wind gradient, is a difference in wind speed and direction over a relatively short distance in the Earth's atmosphere. In coastal regions, sea breezes and land breezes can be important factors in a location's prevailing winds. Air, usually poetical, applies to a very gentle motion of the air. Wind energy is the kinetic energy of the air in motion. [17] Remote sensing techniques for wind include SODAR, Doppler lidars and radars, which can measure the Doppler shift of electromagnetic radiation scattered or reflected off suspended aerosols or molecules, and radiometers and radars can be used to measure the surface roughness of the ocean from space or airplanes. Wind power generation plays an increasingly important role in the way we power our world – in a clean, sustainable manner. High altitude wind power is the focus of over 30 companies worldwide using tethered technology rather than ground-hugging compressive-towers. The solar wind creates the Heliosphere, a vast bubble in the interstellar medium surrounding the Solar System. Unusual mechanisms of wind dispersal include tumbleweeds. [116] The Sirocco brings dust from north Africa into southern Europe because of the movement of extratropical cyclones through the Mediterranean. [149] Such a process over geologic time causes water-rich planets such as the Earth to evolve into planets like Venus. Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale. High winds can blow objects around and pose a significant threat to your safety. Wind farms consist of many individual wind turbines, which are connected to the electric power transmission network. In human civilization, the concept of wind has been explored in mythology, influenced the events of history, expanded the range of transport and warfare, and provided a power source for mechanical work, electricity, and recreation. [52], In mountainous areas, local distortion of the airflow becomes severe. [5] The gradient wind is similar to the geostrophic wind but also includes centrifugal force (or centripetal acceleration). This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 06:50. The largest nuclear explosion (50–58 megatons at an altitude of about 13,000 feet (4,000 m)) generated a 20 bar blast pressure at ground zero, which is similar to a wind gust of 3,100 miles per hour (5,000 km/h). In coastal areas the sea breeze/land breeze cycle can define local winds; in areas that have variable terrain, mountain and valley breezes can dominate local winds. When high winds knock down or uproot trees, the process is known as windthrow. [106], There are local names for winds associated with sand and dust storms. These objects will produce sound if they touch each other. Ocean roughness can be used to estimate wind velocity close to the sea surface over oceans. Isotachs are particularly useful in diagnosing the location of the jet stream on upper-level constant pressure charts, and are usually located at or above the 300 hPa level.[26]. At night, the land cools off more quickly than the ocean because of differences in their specific heat values. 2-year term required 1. This type of gas loss from a planet into space is known as planetary wind. Well-constructed and whole frame houses completely leveled; some frame homes may be swept away; cars and other large objects thrown and small missiles generated. [33] Its poleward progression is accelerated by the development of a heat low over the Asian, African, and North American continents during May through July, and over Australia in December. Therefore, windbreaks (such as big trees and bushes) are often planted by farmers to reduce the wind erosion of loess. This barrier jet can increase the low-level wind by 45%. Wind occurs on a range of scales, from thunderstorm flows lasting tens of minutes, to local breezes generated by heating of land surfaces and lasting a few hours, to global winds resulting from the difference in absorption of solar energy between the climate zones on Earth. Geostationary satellite imagery can be used to estimate the winds throughout the atmosphere based upon how far clouds move from one image to the next. [34][35][36], The Westerlies or the Prevailing Westerlies are the prevailing winds in the middle latitudes between 35 and 65 degrees latitude. Originally it was a 13-level scale (0-12), but during the 1940s, the scale was expanded to 18 levels (0-17). [136] Elk have a keen sense of smell that can detect potential upwind predators at a distance of 0.5 miles (800 m). Even a soft wind will cause a low level of environmental noise. Winds are commonly classified by their spatial scale, their speed, the types of forces that cause them, the regions in which they occur, and their effect. Forecast models ECMWF, GFS, NAM and NEMS [1][2], Winds defined by an equilibrium of physical forces are used in the decomposition and analysis of wind profiles. It is a calculation relating to the effective force of the wind at a particular location, frequently expressed in terms of the elevation above ground level over a period of time. [14] Knowing the wind sampling average is important, as the value of a one-minute sustained wind is typically 14% greater than a ten-minute sustained wind. [93], For aerodynamic aircraft which operate relative to the air, winds affect groundspeed,[94] and in the case of lighter-than-air vehicles, wind may play a significant or solitary role in their movement and ground track. Second, these suspended particles may impact on solid objects causing erosion by abrasion (ecological succession). [81] In Norse mythology, Njörðr is the god of the wind. Most ocean basins use the average wind speed to determine the tropical cyclone's category. [30] The trade winds act as the steering flow for tropical cyclones that form over the world's oceans. Using a mechanical sandblaster in a laboratory setting, scientists affiliated with the Agricultural Research Service studied the effects of windblown sand abrasion on cotton seedlings. In gliding, wind gradients just above the surface affect the takeoff and landing phases of flight of a glider. In the coldest climates such as Antarctica, emperor penguins use huddling behavior to survive the wind and cold, continuously alternating the members on the outside of the assembled group, which reduces heat loss by 50%. [40] These western ocean currents transport warm, sub-tropical water polewards toward the polar regions. The Egmond aan Zee wind farm off the Dutch coast is a 50-50 joint venture between European utility company Nuon and Shell. Strong-framed, well-built houses leveled off foundations and swept away; steel-reinforced concrete structures are critically damaged; tall buildings collapse or have severe structural deformations; cars, trucks, and trains can be thrown approximately 1 mile (1.6 km). Therefore, a northeast wind will be depicted with a line extending from the cloud circle to the northeast, with flags indicating wind speed on the northeast end of this line. [112] Since 1970, dust outbreaks have worsened because of periods of drought in Africa. Wind pressures are positive on the windward side of a structure and negative on the leeward side. The winds are predominantly from the southwest in the Northern Hemisphere and from the northwest in the Southern Hemisphere. According to legend, he was present at the creation of the world and first let the winds out of his bag to clear the world of mist. Black Friday Offer $55 for 20GB, Plus a Galaxy S20 FE 5G On Us. The geostrophic wind component is the result of the balance between Coriolis force and pressure gradient force. [41] The Westerlies play an important role in carrying the warm, equatorial waters and winds to the western coasts of continents,[42][43] especially in the southern hemisphere because of its vast oceanic expanse. [44] Because of the low sun angle, cold air builds up and subsides at the pole creating surface high-pressure areas, forcing an equatorward outflow of air;[45] that outflow is deflected westward by the Coriolis effect. Easterly winds, on average, dominate the flow pattern across the poles, westerly winds blow across the mid-latitudes of the earth, polewards of the subtropical ridge, while easterlies again dominate the tropics. Two simple examples of this are sea breezes and land breezes. [105] The general wind circulation moves small particulates such as dust across wide oceans thousands of kilometers downwind of their point of origin,[106] which is known as deflation. Find more ways to say wind, along with related words, antonyms and example phrases at Thesaurus.com, the world's most trusted free thesaurus. [88] Ocean journeys by sailing ship can take many months,[89] and a common hazard is becoming becalmed because of lack of wind,[90] or being blown off course by severe storms or winds that do not allow progress in the desired direction. [124] Plant varieties near the coast, such as the Sitka spruce and sea grape,[125] are pruned back by wind and salt spray near the coastline. Wind definition is - a natural movement of air of any velocity; especially : the earth's air or the gas surrounding a planet in natural motion horizontally. The strongest observed winds on a planet in the Solar System occur on Neptune and Saturn. [119], Wind dispersal of seeds, or anemochory, is one of the more primitive means of dispersal. [80] Fūjin is the Japanese wind god and is one of the eldest Shinto gods. [32], A monsoon is a seasonal prevailing wind that lasts for several months within tropical regions. [10] Another type of anemometer uses pitot tubes that take advantage of the pressure differential between an inner tube and an outer tube that is exposed to the wind to determine the dynamic pressure, which is then used to compute the wind speed.[11]. Delivered to your inbox! The westerlies can be particularly strong, especially in the southern hemisphere, where there is less land in the middle latitudes to cause the flow pattern to amplify, which slows the winds down. Faster rotation translates to more mechanical power and more electrical power from the generator. In Central America, examples include the Papagayo wind, the Panama wind, and the Tehuano wind. [109] Loess tends to develop into highly rich soils. Windfinder specializes in wind, waves, tides and weather reports & forecasts for wind related sports like kitesurfing, windsurfing, surfing, sailing, fishing or paragliding. Wind affects animals' food stores, as well as their hunting and defensive strategies. [72] Wind shear has a significant effect on the control of aircraft during take-off and landing,[73] and was a significant cause of aircraft accidents involving large loss of life within the United States.

wind & willow seasoning

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